AskEssays.com - Discover essay samples

Women In Africa

4.9 of 5.0 (132 reviews)

Contains
1148 words
Category
Social Issues

Women In Africa Page 1
Women In Africa Page 2
Women In Africa Page 3
Women In Africa Page 4
Women In Africa Page 5
Women In Africa Page 6
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.

In many parts of Africa, there is a large discrepancy in who controlled
the resources, access to the economy, individual autonomy and central voice in
the government between the men and the women. African men, for the most part,
have the largest say in the activities of the country. When issues of concern
arise, "men's issues" usually became the issues of national concern, and those
issues pertinent to women go to the back of everyone's mind. Women are forced
to accept the results of men's actions, and usually nothing gets accomplished
that benefits them. Because women continually were overlooked, they began to
come together and protest. If one examines the following women's protests and
their outcomes: A.E. Afigbo's The Warrant Chiefs, Sylvia Leith-Ross' African
Women, Jean Allman's "Rounding Up Spinsters: Gender Chaos and Unmarried Women in
Colonial Asante", and Irene Staunton's Mothers of the Revolution, several
questions arise. What were women seeking and how did this differ from what men
wanted? Did women attain their goals, and if not, why not? If women were not
successful in getting their concerns at the forefront of national interest, at
what, if anything, were they successful?
In several instances women became so angered by their lack of voice,
that they were moved to act. In some of these cases, women were relatively
successful in organizing and mobilizing. The story of the Aba Riots, which is
discussed in both The Warrant Chiefs and African Women, proves this point well.
In Nigeria, in the late 1920's, the Warrant Chiefs wanted to impose a system of
annual taxation. What was so displeasing to the people about the tax was that
it involved a census, and that the money went towards no specific project. The
concept of counting free people was a foreign one to the Igbo. This notion went
contrary to custom, and it was believed to bring about death (Afigbo, 229). The
people of the Eastern Provinces felt that because they were being counted, the
colonial government was enslaving them or that they were out to destroy them.
Also objectionable to these people was the fact that the collected money went
towards "'development'" (Afigbo, 228), something for which these communities had
not asked.
The first year of tax collection went surprisingly well; except for a
few isolated incidents. The first year was rather non-violent for two reasons:
"It needed the shock of the first payment for people to realize what taxation
meant in practical terms" and the second reason was the large police presence
and prosecutions of opponents to the tax (Afigbo, 233). These two factors
allowed for a relatively peaceful tax collection.
However, when year two arrived, so did the resistance. In September
1929, Captain John Cook was sent to Bende as the Acting District Officer, where
he was disappointed with the male roll counts. He instructed his Warrant Chiefs
to conduct new counts, and "added that the exercise had nothing to do with a tax
on women" (Afigbo, 236). The mere mention of "women" and "tax" in the same
statement sparked immediate disapproval. Rumors began to fly that the
government had ordered a tax on women. Suddenly, the women reacted and agreed
to resist by the end of October, 1929.
Captain Cook did not want to conduct the count himself, so he sent a
mission school teacher to administer the count. When he arrived he asked a
woman whom he met outside to go and count "'her people'" (Afigbo, 237). Within
hours, women in mass numbers had gathered to discuss the tax, and went from
there to the mission teacher's home to ask them why they were being taxed. The
women equated being counting with taxation. "They also sent messengers 'armed'
with fresh folded palm leaves to women of neighboring villages inviting them to
come to Oloko" (Afigbo, 238). The women traveled on foot to ask other women for
support, and the women they approached in their villages would go and rally
their peers and bring the idea to their attention. From there, the women would
decide if they would join the movement and what action, if any, would be taken.
The mere fact that women were able to organize themselves to act in such
a short time was a definite success. Thousands of women from the Eastern
Provinces participated in different activities; some of which were organized,
and some of which were not. The women disturbed court proceedings repeatedly,
decapped chiefs, looted court officials' homes, burned and vandalized court
houses, even looted European factories and shops. Their actions definitely
attracted the immediate attention of the colonial government.
Sylvia Leith-Ross describes how well the women were organized. In some
of the interviews that she conducted with participants and viewers, people were
amazed at the womens' solidarity. This text relays how the men in these areas
had no large part in the Aba Riots. It was said that the men basically "stood
completely on one side, passive, if consenting parties, to the extraordinary
behavior of their wives" (Leith-Ross, 30). This kind of activity was
unthinkable to men and women in other regions, but Igbo women were determined
not to be taxed. From one portion of the text, it almost sounds as if the men
might have taken care of the children while the women were out protesting. Some
women who were bystanders and were forced to participate in the riots, commented
on how they saw the women marching towards them and "they had no children with
them" (Leith-Ross, 32). This implies that the men were the caretakers of the
children during this period, because all of the women were involved in the
riots.There was nowhere else to leave the children. It is amazing to see the
opposite roles that men and women took in the Aba Riots.
However, the women did have some problems staying focused. There was an
incident when two of the women were hit by a medical vehicle, which sparked the
other women to participate in aimless looting. The women became so enraged at
the doctor who hit the two women, that they followed him into a factory and
began looting the European factories and shops, which was not the original goal
of the riots. Another fault of the women was their inability to gain
widespread support across the region. The method of carrying the palm leaf by
foot to neighboring regions inefficient. These women could not reach remote or
distant compounds. ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 1148 words of 2296.

Keywords: how many female leaders in africa, female leaders in africa, who is most beautiful woman in africa

Similar essays


Teen Workers

Fifteen years old and working seems to be becoming a norm and in fact there are many teenagers younger than fifteen who are already working at paying jobs. Some of these students are as young as 12 years old. More than half of the secondary school students have paying jobs. This number grows each grade level the student goes up. The number of h...

141 reviews
Download
Religion the State and Sovereignty

The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper,...

171 reviews
Download
The Ku Klux Klan

"" actually consists of dozens of separate organizations, each with varying goals, tactics, and quality of leadership. The original Klan, which is not to be confused with the groups calling themselves by that name today, was organized in Pulaski, Tennessee, during the winter of 1865 to 1866, by six former Confederate army officers who gave their so...

120 reviews
Download
Cultural Hegemonic

1. Cultural Hegemony- Cultural hegemony is the philosophic and sociological concept, originated by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that a culturally-diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes. It is the dominance of one social group over another, e.g. the ruling class over all other classes. The analysis of hege...

34 reviews
Download
The age sex distribution of the Canadian population from 1851 to 1999

The age-sex distribution of the Canadian population from 1851 to 1999 The demographic changes which have occurred in Canada have reflected the growing population of Canada throughout the sixteenth to the twenty first century. Canada has experienced a population boom in the last century, however, it only constitutes for about one p...

88 reviews
Download
The Apathy of Generation X

Subject: Political Science Title: For the past 25 years it has been wondered why the young people of America have shared the same apathetic attitude towards politics as the older generation of Americans. Indeed, the issues concerning young voters are just as important as those concerning older voters. Why the newest voters choose...

13 reviews
Download
Affirmative Action: Will It Every Work Right?

? For Business Ethics Taught by: Dr. J. Daiz Outline I. Introduction History II. Ethical Issues Kennedy's Arguments Positive debates Sher's Argument Negative debates III. Summary Footnotes I. Introduction From the time of it's original conception to the actual passing of the act or civil rights addendum. Affirmative Action has and cont...

9 reviews
Download
Rise of the American Women

The rise of the ?American? women There are many things that were impacted after the World War I and World War II. For instance, there was the ?great migration? that changed the lives of an estimate of a half of a million African-Americans, which were given the opportunity to migrate from the South to the North. They were given t...

31 reviews
Download
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Many pregnant women are not aware of the complications that are involved with pregnancy. The greater majority of young women see pregnancy as a way of bringing a life into the world but do not use precaution in their dietary habits to prevent the destruction or inhibition of such a life. Most pregnant women continue on their drinki...

136 reviews
Download
How To Overcome Shyness

Hi Sekou, how are you doing? It is okay, Penchan. Are you sure? Yes, I am surely okay. You know Sekou since I know you I noticed that you always keep yourself isolated from other people. Well, I do not like to social with people. What is wrong? Nothing really. Are you feeling uncomfortable while you are surround by other people? I do not know. I th...

155 reviews
Download
The rights of De Facto Relationships in Australia

Introduction ?Marriage involves a number of legal rights and duties. If a man and woman live together as husband and wife but are not legally married, the legal consequences may be different from those arising from a legal marriage.? (www.liv.asn.au) The length of a de facto relationship can help to decide wills, intestacy, pr...

173 reviews
Download
School Shootings and Their Causes

On April 20, 1999, in the moderately sized town of Littleton, Colorado, at approximately 11:20 a.m., two young men, Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, stormed into Columbine High School. No more than twenty minutes later, 15 people were dead, including the two of them, and another twenty-three wounded (Gibbs 28-29). Knowin...

70 reviews
Download
Blacks: A Struggle For Racial Equality

Almost everyone would like to have racial equality in the world today. It is often said that all people have been created equally. That is true, however sometimes not everybody is treated equally. In society, blacks are still struggling for racial equality. We should note that in the 1940'1, blacks were not considered equal to the whites. We...

25 reviews
Download
Lowering The Drinking Age

The drinking age in the United States is a contradiction. At the age of eighteen, one can drive a car, vote in an election, get married, serve in the military and buy tobacco products. In the United States you are legally an adult at eighteen. An eighteen-year-old, however, cannot purchase alcoholic beverages. The minimum drinking...

89 reviews
Download
Atsisiųsti šį darbą