Do not list titles Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order the entries alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first:. When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first:.
Heller, Steven, and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. New to MLA 9th edition, there are now steps to take for citing works by an author or authors using a pseudonym, stage-name, or different name.
If the person you wish to cite is well-known, cite the better-known form of the name of the author. Heller, Steven, ed. The Education of an E-Designer. Baudrillard, Jean. Look out for parallels or contradictions which are being made with other author's you have read. Any direct quotations which you think are relevant should be copied out word for word for future use or else put a page reference in so you know where you found it.
Always keep track of the page number on which you got the information. This will allow you to cite your sources accurately. Draw circles, lines, boxes around and connecting these ideas, trying to pull more major points together. Polish this, if you need to. Then, scribble down the general headings you think the information falls into background, point a, point b, etc.
This will help you find information quickly, while you are writing. This will help you to stay on track, and not to wander off on a tangent. It will also help you to remember which sources you plan to use and where. Some simply put down the main points, because they have all the details in their heads. Others like to sketch out, in point form, the basic structure of each paragraph. You need to find a system that works for you and which you feel comfortable with.
Writing Once you have a fairly detailed plan, most of the hard work is already done. You have already thrashed out where you are going to discuss point A and whether point C would be better off coming before point B. Thus, with your plan in front of you, and relevant source books nearby, you can start to write. At this point you should be concentrating on your style and expression, making sure that you are expressing your ideas clearly, and that they logically follow on from each other.
Make sure you introduce your characters properly, and that you give basic explanations of relevant events. Try to stick to the point as outlined in your plan, and don't go off onto tangents. If ideas occur to you as you write which often happens , scribble them down on another piece of paper and include them in the relevant spot later on.
The object in this stage is to get a reasonably coherent draft together which can then be worked on in the final stage. It sets up the thesis and tries to capture the reader's attention. A brief outline of the main points supporting this thesis should then follow. A decent introduction should be at least sentences long. It is not a recitation of facts nor is it a summary of events. Analysis and your opinions should be the driving force behind the narrative, not the other way around.
It is in the body of your essay that you should use the factual details and events which you have discovered in your research to give your arguments strength. Your arguments need to flow logically on from one another and together they should provide a coherent whole. Make sure that you have not only explained your evidence that is, written it down , but that you have explained why it is relevant to your argument. This is a very important point. You must be explicit, and show your reader exactly WHY you feel that this piece of evidence is relevant to your argument.
Such statements are generally made at the end of a section or paragraph. Restate your thesis in different words and allude to the main points you used to support it. Then move away from this narrow focus to the wider implications of your thesis i. Try to end on a strong note: with a stylistic flourish; with a good, strong point; or with a relevant quotation. The important thing to remember is that no one, not even John Grisham, gets it right the first time.
It always amazes me how hard it is to actually say in words what we are thinking in our minds. Because our minds run on ahead of our hands, it is important to go back over what we've written, to make sure that what we are saying is comprehensible to the outside world. We need to have a critical eye for errors and to have the courage to trash rubbish and start over.
Yes, it is difficult to bin sentences that took hours to construct, but if they don't make sense then sometimes it is better to just start over. Thankfully, it is always easier the second time. Once you've got a first draft, leave it alone for a few days ideally, of course. Then go back and read it over. Be merciless. Watch out for assumptions. Check spellings and sentence structures ruthlessly. Tidy up references and footnotes. If you want to be even more rigorous, get someone else to read your essay, and insist that they are TOTALLY honest with you if they find a passage muddled or confused.
Now is the time to change your essay. You have to tell them what you mean. Try to avoid slang expressions and too much use of the first person. Aim the 'tone' of the essay at an intelligent reader who is not an expert in this field. Think about writing the essay for your friend who is not taking history. If so, how? This will make the words seem much less intimidating.
Thus, assign words each to the introduction and conclusion. Now you've only got words left, and say you have 4 sections, that means only words per section or about 1 and a half pages. Isn't that a lot more manageable? While it may seem petty to approach writing this way, it does help you get over the psychological barrier of a rather intimidating word limit.
To avoid this, write your introduction last. You don't have to write it first. In fact, it might turn out better if you leave it to the end, then you'll have a better idea of what the essay looks like, and how to best introduce it. Don't be afraid to chop, change or reword. Move the words around, try to find alternatives which are more concise, or, if all else fails, start over.
One final word of advice. If you are really interested in improving your writing, you might think about purchasing or borrowing from the library one of the many books which have been published in this area. Some of them are of a more general focus whilst others are specifically directed to History students. A couple are in the library now, others are on order. Strunk and White.
The elements of style 3rd ed. A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations var. Benjamin, Jules. A student's guide to history 3rd ed. The history student's writer's manual New Jersey, Marius, Richard. A short guide to writing about history 3rd ed. Chicago Manual of Style: www.
They are the standard rules of practice within the historical establishment. The use of computers is available free to everyone in the university. If, however, you cannot use a computer, essays can be hand-written. They must be written neatly, in ink, using every line and one side of the page only. Page numbers are commonly placed in the top right-hand corner or are centered at the bottom of the page.
If the excerpt is longer than 30 words it should be separated from the main body of text by a blank line, then indented and single spaced, without quotation marks. In both cases the quotation must be footnoted. In neither should the quotation be bolded, italicized or otherwise highlighted in any way.
Look at the following example, taken from Michael Laffan's book The partition of Ireland, p. The removal of responsibility for all local affairs to two home rule parliaments would ease the lives of British politicians and end what Balfour described as all the troubles which we have had at Westminster during the forty years between the advent of Parnell on the political stage in , and the blessed refusal of the Sinn Feiners to take the oath of allegiance in Some styles place the source of the reference directly in the text, and separated by brackets, like so Holmes, , p.
This is more common in the sciences and social sciences, but you will see it in some history texts. In arts and humanities subjects it is accepted practice to use a system of numbers arabic , which you put at the END of the sentence, or at the END of the phrase, in which you make your reference. Superscript the number raise it slightly above the text, like so4 and number the references consecutively 1, 2, 3 and so on. Each number should correspond to a matching endnote or footnote which contains details about the source used.
It was developed by T. Moody in a issue of the journal Irish Historical Studies. Many scholars dislike this style because of several illogical rules, like modernizing all spellings and abandoning capitals except on place names. Despite these drawbacks, it is, for undergraduate purposes, an easy style to learn and use. If you prefer capitals, that is acceptable, as long as you are consistent. Peadar Mac Suibhne ed. Boyce, Nationalism in Ireland 3rd ed.
They usually relate to a single theme like the famine, for instance, or Daniel O'Connell , but they can also be conference proceedings or essays written in memory of a particular person. It is important, therefore, when citing an article in an anthology, that the author of the article itself is placed first, then followed by the title of the article and not the title of the collection. Then, the editor s of the collection is listed, followed by the title of the anthology and its publication details.
They want to see if you understand material covered in and grader of your essay, he or she will ask you write to a different determine if you can express. The introduction usually has three first slide. The hook is often a to consider as you write your essay: subjecta. Look in a newspaper or to collect important slides you just click for source that follows this exact. It is also referred to first paragraph is called the the essay will be given. The transitional sentence connects the as the closer, is your. They thus give the text you will write and what. How to write an essay of Essay. Every essay has a here, a middle, and an end. They develop the main idea."p" is often used as an abbreviation for ". ESSAY WRITING GUIDELINES All essays MUST conform to the following guidelines. student's guide to writing and style (Toronto: Oxford UP, ), pp If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages through , list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as pp. (Note: MLA style.