## Voltage: Ohm's Law And Kirchhoff's Rules

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ABSTRACT
Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's rules is fundamental for the understanding of
dc circuit. This experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to
so simple dc circuits.

INTRODUCTION
In the theory of Ohm's Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as
illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V
represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a
electrical conductor and between which an electric current, I, will flow. The
constant, R, is called the conductor's resistance. Thus by the Ohm's Law, one
can determine the resistance R in a DC circuit without measuring it directly
provided that the remaining variable V and I is known.
A resistor is a piece of electric conductor which obeys Ohm's Law and
has been designed to have a specific value for its resistance. As an extension
of the Ohm's Law, two more relationship can be drawn for electric circuits
containing resistors connected in series or/and parallel. For resistors
connected in series, the sum of their resistance is, RTOTAL=R1+R2+ ..... +Rn .
And for resistors connected in parallel, 1/RTOTAL==1/R1+1/R2+ ..... +1/Rn .
Complex dc circuit involving a combination of parallel and series resistors can
be analyzed to find the current and voltage at each point of the circuit using 2
basic rules formulated by Kirchhoff. 1) The algebraic sum of current at any
branch point in a circuit is zero. 2) The algebraic sum of potential difference,
V, around any closed loop in a circuit is zero. These rules and equations
provided by the Ohm's law and the Kirchhoff rule can be experimentally tested
with the apparatus available in the lab

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
The apparatus used in the experiment includes a Voltmeter, an Ammeter,
some connecting wires and a series of resistors and light bulb with varies
resistance. This experiment could be divided into 5 sections which value of
voltage and current measured is noted in all sections for further calculation.
In the first section, in order to evaluate the reliability of Ohm's law, a dc
circuit was constructed as FIG 2 (on p.4 ) using a resistor with an expected
resistance at 2400W*120W. In the second section, we were instructed to
determine the internal resistance of the voltmeter. Two dc circuit ...

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