In order to maintain peace and stability in the world, there must
be a balance of power between countries. was started
because there wasn't a balance of power after World War II. The U.S. was
the only country at that time which possessed nuclear weapons. Russia,
fearing a United States domination of world power, developed a nuclear bomb
of its own. Thus started the Arms Race, in which both countries attempted
to gain the upper hand in terms of the number of nuclear warheads each
possessed. However, the Arms Race ended when several treaties in arms
reduction were passed. I believe that in the end, the United States and
the Soviet Union realized that one country would eventually win, and the
balance of power would again be shifted. Fearing a nuclear war, arms
negotiations began in an attempt to lessen the tension. This is evident in
the fact that treaties between the two countries were signed, agreeing on
the limitation and testing of nuclear arms. It is also illustrated in the
Cuban Missile Crisis, where Russia agreed to withdraw the missiles placed
in Cuba, fearing U.S. retaliation.
In order to better understand the Arms Race, a brief history must
be given. The Arms Race probably began in August of 1949, when Russia
detonated its own nuclear weapon, thus ending the U.S. monopoly. In
response, president Truman ordered the development of the hydrogen bomb in
January of 1950. However, the Soviet Union made the first H-bomb in August
of 1953. Then, the race escalated when the Inter-Continental Ballistic
Missile was developed in the summer of 1957, again by the Soviets. A
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