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The Human Brain

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1008 words
Science & Nature

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The human body is divided into many different parts called organs.
All of the parts are controlled by an organ called the brain, which is
located in the head. The brain weighs about 2.75 pounds, and has a
whitish-pink appearance. The brain is made up of many cells, and is the
control centre of the body. The brain flashes messages out to all the
other parts of the body. The messages travel in very fine threads called
nerves. The nerves and the brain make up a system somewhat like telephone
poles carrying wires across the city. This is called the nervous system.

The nerves in the body don't just send messages from the brain to
the organs, but also send messages from the eyes, ears, skin and other
organs back to your brain. Some nerves are linked directly to the brain.
Others have to reach the brain through a sort of power line down the back,
called the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up the central
nervous system.

The brain doesn't just control your organs, but also can think and
remember. That part of the brain is called the mind.


Twenty-eight bones make up the skull. Eight of these bones are
interlocking plates. These plates form the cranium. The cranium provides
maximum protection with minimum weight, the ideal combination. The other
twenty bones make up the face, jaw and other parts of the skull.

Another way the brain keeps it self safe is by keeping itself in
liquid. Nearly one fifth of the blood pumped by the heart is sent to the
brain. The brain then sends the blood through an intricate network of
blood vessels to where the blood is needed. Specialized blood vessels
called choroid plexuses produce a protective cerebrospinal fluid. This
fluid is what the brain literally floats in.

A third protective measure taken by the brain is called the blood
brain barrier. This barrier consists of a network of unique capillaries.
These capillaries are filters for harmful chemicals carried by the blood,
but do allow oxygen, water and glucose to enter the brain.


The brain is divided into three main sections. The area at the
front of the brain is the largest. Most of it is known as the cerebrum.
It controls all of the movements that you have to think about, thought and
memory. The cerebrum is split in two different sections, the right half
and the left half.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cortex. It is
mainly made up of cell bodies of neurons called grey matter. Most of the
work the brain does is done in the cortex. It is very wrinkled and has
many folds. The wrinkles and folds give the cortex a large surface area,
even though it is squeezed up to fit in the skull.

The extra surface area gives the cerebrum more area to work.
Inside the cortex, the cerebrum is largely made up of white matter. White
matter is tissue made only of nerve fibres.

The middle region is deep inside the brain. It's chief purpose is
to connect the front and the back of the brain together. It acts as a
"switchboard", keeping the parts of your brain in touch with each other.

The back area of the brain is divided into three different parts.
The pons is a band of nerve fibres which link the back of the brain to the
middle. The cerebellum sees to it that all the parts of your body work as
a team. It also makes sure you keep your balance.

The medulla is low down at the back of your head. It links the
brain to the top of the spinal cord. The medulla controls the way your
heart pumps blood through your body. It also looks after your breathing
and helps you digest food.



The brainstem is one of the oldest parts of the brain. It
controls such functions as breathing, blood pressure, swallowing and heart


This part of the brain is located directly above the brain stem.
The hypothalmus controls basic drives like hunger and sex and as well as
our response to threat and danger. The hypothalmus also controls the


The pituitary produces hormones such as testosterone that
circulate through out the body.


The thalamus is like a relay area; it receives messages from lower
brain areas such as the brainstem and hypothalmus and sends them to the
two brain hemispheres. The thalamus is located in between above the lower
brain and under the two hemispheres.


Most of the above mentioned parts of the brain were produced early
in evolution but the higher mammals especially humans went on to produce a
sort of "thinking cap" on top of these parts. This "thinking cap" was
divided into two different parts, the left hemisphere and the right

If the left side of your brain is more developed like most
people's are, you are right handed. On the other hand if the right side
of your brain is more developed, then you will be left handed. The right
side of your brain is more artistic and emotional while the left side of
your brain is your "common sense" ...

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