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The History Of The Internet

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When one thinks of the internet, one may think of America Online, Yahoo!, or of Sandra Bullock being caught up in an espionage conspiracy. For me, it is a means of communication. A way to talk to some of my friends who live off in distant places such as Los Angeles, New Jersey, and the Philippines. The U.S. Defense Department originally had this intent in mind when they connected a computer network with various other radio and satellite networks.[1 Krol] They wanted a means of communicating within the U.S. military that could withstand partial outages, such a bomb attacks, and still function.[2 Krol]
In this paper I will cover the internet's experimental beginnings, the commercialization of this technology in the present, and what the project that is taking place that will probably be the future of the internet.
Before I begin talking about the internet, allow me to define what is the internet, who governs it, and what is the financial impact of this technology. The internet is made up of all computer networks that use IP protocol, which operate to form a seamless network for their collective users.[3 Krol] This means that federal, commercial, and institutional networks all compose parts of the internet. This network is connected to each other by either telephone wires, cable lines, or satellite signals. These wires, lines, or signals are then pipelined from server computer to server computer until your host server transmits the electronic information into your computer. The governing body of the internet is the Internet Society (ISOC).[4 Krol] The Internet Society purpose, according to Ed Krol, is to ?promote global information exchange through Internet technology?. Another governing body is the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).[5 Krol]
This IAB board governs the protocol standards whereby how computers and software applications talk to each other.[6 ibid] They also make the rules on how to keep track of each 32-bit address number used by each computer on the internet. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the governing body who takes care of operational and near-tearm technical problems of the internet.[7 ibid]
Along with all conveniences, there is a price to pay. Though information could be obtained from the internet for free, everyone has to pay for their own access to it. Just like NSF pays for NSFNET and NASA pays for NASA Science Internet, individuals pay their Internet Service Provider and their telephone company for access to the internet.[8 ibid] As Ed Krol in said in The Whole Internet User's Guide, ?everyone pays for their part.?
The internet, just like the light bulb and the airplane, started out as an idea. In August 1962, a researcher at MIT by the name of J.C.R. Licklider wrote a series of memos that outlined a ?Galactic Network? of interconnected computers whereby everyone could quickly access information and programs from any site.[9 Leiner] Another researcher at MIT, Leonard Kleinrock, published a paper in July 1961 that would make communication on the internet more feasible.[10 ibid] Kleinrock's paper on the packet switching theory convinced MIT researcher Lawrence Roberts to set up an experiment that involved connecting a TX-2 computer at MIT to a AN/FSQ-32 computer at System Development Corp. at Santa Monica, California.[11 ibid] This experiment resulted in the first computer network ever built.[12 ibid] In 1966 Roberts took his computer network expertise to the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and quickly put together a plan for an ?ARPANET?. During the implementation of this plan, Leonard Kleinrock's theory of packet switching was put into practice by the development of key components called Interface Message Processors (IMPs).[13 ibid]
The impact of this development led to the assembly of the ARPANET. The first site chosen to implement the ARPANET is ...

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