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The Big Bang And Steady State Models

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Science & Nature

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It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and
when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological
models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big
Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the
Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe.
The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago,
the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang.
Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and radiation of our present
universe were packed together in the primeval fireball--an extremely hot
dense state from which the universe rapidly expanded.1 The Big Bang was
the start of time and space. The matter and radiation of that early stage
rapidly expanded and cooled. Several million years later, it condensed
into galaxies. The universe has continued to expand, and the galaxies have
continued moving away from each other ever since. Today the universe is
still expanding, as astronomers have observed.
The Steady State model says that the universe does not evolve or
change in time. There was no beginning in the past, nor will there be
change in the future. This model assumes the perfect cosmological
principle. This principle says that the universe is the same everywhere on
the large scale, at all times.2 It maintains the same average density of
matter forever.
There are observational evidences found that can prove the Big Bang
model is more reasonable than the Steady State model. First, the redshifts
of distant galaxies. Redshift is a Doppler effect which states that if a
galaxy is moving away, the spectral line of that galaxy observed will have
a shift to the red end. The faster the galaxy moves, the more shift it has.
If the galaxy is moving closer, the spectral line will show a blue shift.
If the galaxy is not moving, there is no shift at all. However, as
astronomers observed, the more distance a galaxy is located from Earth, the
more redshift it shows on the spectrum. This means the further a galaxy is,
the faster it moves. Therefore, the universe is expanding, and the Big
Bang model seems more reasonable than the Steady State model.
The second observational evidence is the radiation produced by the Big
Bang. The Big Bang model predicts that the universe should still be filled
with a small remnant of radiation left over from the original violent
explosion of the primeval fireball in the past. The primeval fireball
would have sent strong shortwave radiation in all directions into space.
In time, that radiation would spread out, cool, and fill the expanding
universe uniformly. By now it would strike Earth as microwave radiation.
In 1965 physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected microwave
radiation coming equally from all directions in the sky, day and night, all
year.3 And so it appears that astronomers have detected the fireball
radiation that was produced by the Big Bang. This casts serious doubt on
the Steady State model. The Steady State could not explain the existence
of this radiation, so the model cannot best explain the beginning of the
Since the Big Bang model is the better model, the existence and the
future of the universe can also be explained. Around 15 to 20 billion
years ago, time began. The points that were to become the universe
exploded in the primeval fireball called the Big Bang. The exact nature of
this explosion may never be known. However, recent theoretical
breakthroughs, based on the principles of quantum theory, have suggested
that ...

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Keywords: the big bang and steady state model, big bang vs steady state, why is the big bang theory better than the steady state, steady state theory vs big bang, what are the similarities and differences of the big bang theory and steady state theory

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