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Study guide for european histo

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Study guide for european histo

Study guide for European History or Global Studies

1. Petrarch.- Called the "Father of all Humanism." Revered

Roman Cicero above all

others. Followed Cicero's example of elequence and put

emphasis upon language such as

Latin and Greek.

2. Medici.- Wealthy banking family controlling Florence.

Had much influence in

government and influenced The Signoria, the ruling council

in Florence. Created a lasting

dynasty with children who had power.

3. Nepotism.- Keeping Position in the Church within the


4. Peace of Ausburg.- Ended forty years of religous

struggle in Germany. Through the

treaty the emperor of Germany allowed the country to

establish the religion of theri

people. Protestant princes would govern Prtestant states,

Catholic princes Catholic states.

5. Bill of rights.- The English constitutional settlement

of 1689, confirming the deposition

of James II and the accession of William and Mary,

guaranteeing the Protestant

succession, and laying down the principles of parliamentary


6. Edict of Nantes.- An edict of 1598 signed by Henry IV of

France granting toleration to

Protestants and ending the French Wars of Religion. It was

revoked by Louis XIV in


7. Boccaccio.- Giovanni Boccaccio (1313'75), Italian

writer, poet, and humanist. He is

most famous for the Decameron (1348'58), a collection of a

hundred tales told by ten

young people who have moved to the country to escape the

Black Death.

8. Patronage.- Support given by members of Rennaisance

Society. Founding and

recognizing the arts.

9. Jesuits.- A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman

Catholic order of priests founded

by St Ignatius Loyola, St Francis Xavier, and others in

1534, to do missionary work. The

order was zealous in opposing the Reformation. Despite

periodic persecution it has

retained an important influence in Catholic thought and


10. Thomas More.- More, Thomas (1478-1535). One of the most

respected figures in

English history, Thomas More was a statesman, scholar, and

author. He was noted for his

wit and also for his devotion to his religion. More was

executed as a traitor for his refusal

to acknowledge King Henry VIII's supremacy over the church.

The story of More's life

and death became familiar to many through Robert Bolt's

play, 'A Man for All Seasons',

first performed in 1960.

Utopia-greek word meaning,"no place"Plato wrote this

constitution tackling the ultimate

problem of politics,"How should the state be ordered?"His

answere was an image of a just

society, created by a philosopher-king and ruled by hand-

picked body guards.His ideal

state resembles the greek polis in size.Sir Thomas Moore

created a second Utopia, it was

a convincing social satire. his vision at a carefully

planned and permanently contended


Frederick the Great-ruller of Prussia after father

(Frederick I)Frederick the Great had a

great love music, against his father's will, he secretly

collected any books he could find on

the subject. When he became king, his love of music came

out in the open and he began

to entertain many people. Frederick's military prowess

earned him his title, "the Great."He

also forged an alliance w/the Prussian nobility,

interigation the minto a unified state. A

tightly organized control adminstration, which depended

upon the cooperation of the local

nobility directed both military and bureaucratic affairs.

At the center, Frederick worked

tirelessly to oversee his government.Frederick declared, "I

am the state." "I am the 1st

servant of the state." He codified the laws of Prussia,

abolished torture and capital

punishment, and instituted agricultural techniques imported

from the states of western

Europe. By the end of Frederick's reign, Prussia had

become a model for bureaucratic

organization, military reform, and enlightened rule.

Primogeniture-inheritance by eldest son

Adam Smith-he was a Scottish political theorist whose

work,"The Wealth of Nations,"was

the 1st great work of economic analysis in European

history. Smith had wide-ranging

interests and wrote with equal authority about

manufacturing, population, and trade. He

was the 1st to develop the doctrine of free trade, which he

called "laissez-faire." Smith

argued that the government that governed least governed

best, and he was an early critic

of protective tariffs and monopolies.

Francis Bacon-leading supporter of scientific research in

England. He proposed a

scientific method through inductive empiical

experimantaion. He believed that

experiments should be carefully recorded so that results

were both reliable and repeatable.

he advocated the open world of the scientist over the

secret world of the magician. In his

numerous writings, he stressed the practical impact of

scientific duscivery and even wrote

a utopian work in which science appeared as the savior of

humanity. Although he was not

himself a scientific investigator, Bacon used his

considerable influence to support scientific

projects in England.

Versailles-the greatest palace of the greatest king of the

greatest state in 17th century

Europe. It was a reflection of Louis XIV and of France.

Van Eyck-not found

Michelangelo-Renaissance paiter and sculptor; was

responsible for such great works as the

ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and "David," a sculpture.

Shakespeare-famous playwriter of the medieval period; his

works inclueded "Macbeth"

and "Hamlet." Providing entertainment for all and expressed

his views through his plays of

certain situations.

Johann Tetzet-he sold indulgences which inspired Martin

Luther's 95 theses. Tetzel

answered with 122 of his own but was rebuked and disowned

by the Catholics.

95 Thesis - These were posted by Martin Luther, professor

of theology at Wittenberg

University, on the castle church attacking the sale of


Anglican - the official Protestant Christian religion of

the English state

Humanism - Renaissance intellectualism and celebration of

the human as an individual

Galileo Galilei - Italian astronomer; most famous scientist

of the European new scientific

revolution; credited for telescope and helocentrism (Sun is

central, Earth around Sun) for

which he was placed under house arrest by Church for most

of his life

Huguenots - followers of Calvinsism in Western Europe

Laissez-faire - "self-govern," the theory of John Locke

that people should govern

themselves and hold the sovereignty

Voltaire - French intellectual; wrote Philosophical Letters

Concerning the English Nation

after visiting England for two years in which he explains

the greatness of religious

tolerance as practiced in England, the theory for which he

is known

Charles I - This ruler of Spain was also Charles V, Holy

Roman Emperor; as a Holy

Roman Emperor, he made peace with Protestants unlike with


Protestant - Religion based on the original (now known as

Catholic) principles but

changed to form new Christian religion (Protest-ant)

The Prince - Machiavelli wrote this explaining how "men

must either be pampered or

crushed;" most important and contraversal writing of

Renaissance; begins science of



-entered Augustinian monastery and ordained priest in 1507

-received doctorate and appointed to theology faculty in


-opposed the sale of indulgences

-wrote doctrine of salvation by faith(sola-fida)

-wrote 95 Thesis (things wrong with Catholic Church)

-excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521

-his religion, Lutheranism challenged Catholic Church

Balance of Power: distribution of power in which no single

nation is able to dominate.


-German astronomer and natural philosopher

-noted for verifying the three laws of planetary motion

(known as Keplers Laws)

-published Cosmographic Mystery in 1596

-Also published Epitome of Copernican Astronomy (book of

Keplers discoveries)

Henry IV:

-King of England (1399-1413)

-Leader of party that opposed King Richard II

-was exiled for six years by King Richard II because of

arguement with Thomas


-raised army, invaded England and captured Richard

-elected king by parliament

-Scot tryed attaching English but were defeated


-series of revolts against french monarchy between 1648-1653

-Louis XIV was king

-parliament and citizens were against the kings heavy

taxation policies


-french writer and jurist

-wrote Persian Letters

-it satirized contemporary french politics, social

conditions and eccesiastical matters and


-book was very popular and one of enlightenments earliest


William and Mary:

-William revived the Grand Alliance and initiated a massive

land war against France and


-Mary restored catholism in England


-atronomical theory thata the sun is the center of the

solar system

-first postulated by polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicas


-catalog of forrbidden books

-published by Roman Catholic Church

-if u were to read, sell or transmit any literature w/out

permission u would be


I couldn't find the word "raison d' etat"

John Calvin-Founder of Calvinism which is a religion that

was independant of the state,

self governing, and therefore was able to flourish in time

of crisis. Calvinisim emphasized

the beliefs of predestination.

Devine Right Theory-Theory that a King has the right to

rule as stated to him by God.

Isaac Newton-Greatest of all english scientists,

mathematician. Studied physics and

astronomy. Discovered Gravity

Sun King-Louis XIV, Richelou's successor and Cheif


30 Yrs. War-War lasting 30 years, involving the Bohemian

stage, Danish stage, Swedish

phase, and the Frech and Swedish phase. The war ended with

the Peace of Westphalia.

John Locke-Theorist of the Revolution of 1688, Developed

contract theory of Gov't,

Designed to maintain person's natural rights of life,

liberty, and property

James II-King of England, Attempted to use his power of

appointment to foil constraints

that Parliament imposed upon him.

Geocentric Theory-The Earth is the center of the Universe

and everything revolves around


Counter Reformation-Rebut taking place after reformation,

Aggressive Catholic response

that was determined to meet Protestantism head on and repel

it. Militant Church

1. Rabelais: I have no idea...couldn't find em and I

don't have any idea what he or it has

to do with.

2. Indulgences: (Page 393) A portion of the treasury of

good works performed by the

righteous Christians throughout the ages; granted to those

who desired to atone for their

sins. * Major factor in the reformation. Most of Luther's

95 Theses attacked the church

and the sale of such Indulgences.

3. Philosophes: (Page 578) (No direct definition) "A

monster in society who feels under

no obligation towards ...

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Keywords: study guide for ap european history, best study guide for ap european history, how to study european history

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