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Some of the most important pre

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Some of the most important pre


The election of 1812 consisted of a battle between James Madison, and De Witt Clinton. Madison had represented both Democratic and Republican beliefs, while Clinton was a Federalist.

James Madison was born in Port Conway, Va., on March 16, 1751. A Princeton graduate, he joined the struggle for independence on his return to Virginia in 1771. He had been an active politician in the 1770's and 1780's. He was greatly know for championing the Jefferson reform program, and in the Continental Congress. Madison, in collaboration, had participated greatly in the, Federalist, a paper who's main purpose was to ratify the constitution. Madison first became president in 1809, when he bested Charles C. Pickney. He had led the U.S. in a very unpopular war, in which the U.S. hadn't been prepared for...the War of 1812.

De Witt Clinton was a Federalist, who's main purpose of the election was to get the U.S. out of a war in which he felt was very unnecessary. DeWitt held every major elective office in New York between 1797 and 1828--assemblyman, senator, mayor of New York City, lieutenant governor, and governor. He was a philanthropist and patron of the arts and science and, as canal commissioner, championed construction of the Erie and Champlain canals

The method in which these candidates received nomination was by the Electoral College, or by King Caucus. The idea of political conventions had not been present at this time. There were no third-party candidates in this election.

The major issue of this election was the War of 1812. The War of 1812, or "Mr. Madison's War", had been very unpopular among different sections of America. Mainly the ship owners in New England. The war was supposed to protect. This war was supposed to help their shipping, but instead, it had kept them from trading and making money.

The winner of the election of 1812 was James Madison. Madison collected 128 electoral votes, while Clinton received 89, and the number of "No Votes Cast" was 1. The Vice-presidential candidate, who won the election was Elbridge Gerry, who received 131 electoral votes, while Jared Ingersoll received 86. There was no record of the number of popular votes for this election.

My opinion of why Madison had won the election is because he had led the country into the War of 1812, and therefore, he should be allowed to fight it. He was also much more popular than De Witt Clinton. Madison's part in ratifying the Constitution, and his other early deeds, were also influential on the voters minds. He also did pretty well during his first term.


The candidates for the election of 1844 were James K. Polk, and Henry Clay. Two very respectable men, who had great plans for the U.S. Polk represented the Democratic party, while Clay represented the Whigs.

James Knox Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C., on November 2, 1795. He graduated from the University of North Carolina, from which he then moved to Tennessee, where he became prominent in state politics. He was elected to the house of representatives in 1825. He was elected Speaker of the House in 1835. Four years later, he was elected governor of Tennessee, but was beaten in tries for re-election in 1841, and 1843. Martin Van Buren, the president prior to the 1844 election, counted on Polk as his running mate; but when Van Buren's stand on Texas alienated Southern support, the convention swung to Polk on the Ninth ballot.

Henry Clay, a key figure in U.S. politics during the first half of the 19th century, was a master of the art of political compromise. Born in Hanover County, Va., on April 12, 1777, he studied law in Richmond and moved to the frontier state of Kentucky in 1797. Clay became more and more important in Kentucky politics, becoming speaker of the state assembly in 1807, and winning election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1811. Clay made his first try for the presidency in 1824. Four men ran, including Andrew Jackson, were on the ballot. When no candidate won a majority, Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams. Adams won and promptly named Clay his secretary of state.

The party members won their candidacy by primary. The major upset of this time happened during the Democratic convention. Everyone expected Van Buren to be named the Democratic candidate, but because of Van Buren's stand on Texas, the nomination went to Polk. This election had no third-party candidates.

The major issue of this election was the issue of Texas. Polk and the Democrats, wanted Texas in the Union. Clay also wanted Texas, but he was afraid that the acquisition of Texas would lead to war with Mexico. Clay never made it clear just where the Whig party stood. The Oregon territory had also been a big part of this election. Oregon was the name given to all the land between Alaska and California, west of the Rocky Mountains. Both Great Britain and the U.S. claimed it. Polk said that the Oregon territory would be America's, even if it led to war.

The winner of the election was James K. Polk. He pulled in 170 electoral votes, while Henry Clay received 105. There is no record of the number of popular votes for this election.

My opinion of why Polk won this election is because of his stand on land. He believed greatly in "Manifest Destiny", and this was very popular at the time. Clay, and the Whig party never made it clear as to where they stood on Texas. Perhaps if the voters had known for sure on which side of the line they stood, this election might have had a different outcome.


The election of 1912 was a three-man race between Theodore Roosevelt, who was a Progressive, William H. Taft, a Republican, and Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat. Each one had their own ideas on how to change America, but only one would get a chance to do so.

Born in NYC on October in 1858, Theodore Roosevelt was a Harvard graduate. His interests included ranching, politics, and writing. Roosevelt was a Republican member of the New York assembly from 1882-1884. He was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor of NYC in 1886, but became police commissioner of NYC in 1895. Roosevelt assumed the job of president in 1901, after the assassination of McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt embarked mainly on conserving natural resources. He was very anit-big-buisness. After his term was up, he was defeated in presidential primary as a Republican, so he chose to start his own party, known as the "Progressives". Teddy pulled most of the votes in election of 1912, but the split between him and Taft caused Wilson to become president.

Born in Cincinnati on September 15, 1857, William Taft was a Yale graduate, who went on to serve for the Ohio supreme court from 1890-92. He became the Secretary of war under President Roosevelt. Taft won the republican nomination over Roosevelt during their political convention, causing Roosevelt to form Progressive party. Lost election, thus causing Wilson to become president. Taft had been chosen by Roosevelt essentially to carry on Roosevelt's progressive policies. In a certain sense he did: he instituted and completed more antitrust cases than his "trust-busting" predecessor; he supported the proposed income-tax amendment to the U.S. Constitution; he helped enact a system of postal savings and a measure, the Mann-Elkins Bill, to regulate the railroads more effectively; and he backed several social reforms, including an employer's liability law for work done on government jobs and a mandatory 8-hour day in federal employment.

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Va., on Dec. 28, 1856. He was profoundly influenced by a devoutly religious household headed by his father, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, a Presbyterian minister, and his mother, Janet Woodrow Wilson, the daughter of a minister. Wilson studied at the University of Virginia Law School, briefly practiced law in Atlanta, and in 1883 entered The Johns Hopkins University for graduate study in political science. His book, Congressional Government, was published a year before he received his doctoral degree. Success in New Jersey made him a contender for the Democratic presidential nomination. Although Wilson entered the 1912 Democratic National Convention a poor second to Speaker of the House Champ Clark, his strength increased as Clark's faded, and he won the nomination after 46 ballots. Offering a program of reform that he called the New Freedom, Wilson ran against a divided Republican party. In November, with only 42 percent of the popular vote, he won 435 electoral votes to 88 for Progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt and 8 for the Republican candidate, President William Howard Taft.

The candidates for this election, excluding Roosevelt, were all elected in a convention. Because Roosevelt lost his convention, he formed his own party, allowing him a place on the ballot.

The third party candidate for this election was Theodore Roosevelt. His party, the Progressives main issue were, they believed that abuses of power by government and business could be ended (i.e., bribery and corruption), business regulations, importance of technology.

The main issues in this election were Big Business abusing powers by monopolizing others. "Trust Busting" was the major idea of this period. Many felt that government should get involved to stop power abusing. The idea of regulations, such as the on the meat packing industry, were very much supported, after being exposed by the muckrakers ...

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