What instruments do they use, and which of these instruments were available to Gregor Mendel? Describe the outside layers that cover animal cells and plant cells. What functions do these layers serve? What did Mendel know about the function of these outer layers? Membranes are found inside eukaryotic cells where they surround certain internal organelles. Describe at least three internal organelles, their membranes and what function these organelles serve. Why are cells so small?
Describe and illustrate the reasons why living cells cannot easily grow beyond a certain size. What are the limiting factors? Did Mendel understand this? What are the three main types of cells? Describe each type and compare them to each other? How do their structures fit their roles?
Did Mendel know about all these three types of cells? Plant cells contain certain specialized internal organelles. What are these organelles? What do they do? All cells depend on their ability to manipulate energy. Which organelle in eukaryotic cells is responsible for transferring energy from food molecules into ATP? How is this done? How do single animal cells move? Describe at least two ways in which single celled animals move around.
Do single cells in a multicellular organism like ourselves move? Why, or why not? What is the nucleus of a cell? What does it do? What does it contain? Would Mendel have understood the role and function of the nucleus inside a cell? Research Investigation Using your assigned microbe for details, see below , carefully carry out your investigation. Record your results using the tables provided draw a graph and find the answer.
In this research investigation you are going to examine the growth properties of a micro-organism. You are going to grow this microbe under carefully controlled conditions and determine at which temperature the microbe grows the fastest. There are several parts to this investigation: Go to the "Properties of Microbes" section of the web site.
Unit Genetics. Unit Evolution. Unit Biodiversity. Unit Ecology. Unit Physiology 1. Unit Physiology 2. Unit Physiology 3. Unit Physiology 4. Unit Neurobiology. Unit Behavior. The Individual Investigation. Guidance for the use of simulations. B: Internal Assessment Criteria. IA Guidance. C: Turnitin Instructions. D: Data Studio. E: Citations. F: Lab Write.
G: Data Presentation. Unit 1: Modelling Diffusion across a Membrane. Unit 2: Osmosis. Unit 3: Enzymes. Unit 4: Enzyme planning. Unit 5: Respiration. Unit 6: Photosynthesis Virtual Lab. Unit 6: Energetics planning. Unit 7: Plant Transpiration. Unit Seed Germination Planning Lab. Unit 8: Meiosis. Unit 9: Genetics. Unit 9: DNA Fingerprint. Unit Ensatina eschscholtzii: a ring species. Unit Evolution simulation. Unit Ventilation Experiment. Unit Cardiovascular Fitness Lab.
Unit Internal Assessment Lab. Unit Reaction Time Lab. Unit Neurobiology Lab. Unit Behavior lab. These questions have appeared on recent IB examinations, exactly as shown below. Following each question is the markscheme answer which was used to evaluate student answers on the examination paper. Discuss possible exceptions to cell theory.
Award 4 max if any eukaryotic structures included. Award 2 max if any plant cell structure e.
Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system. Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration. Describe the processes of fat and protein digestion and product absorption as they occur in the human stomach and small intestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactions involved. Describe the following mechanisms of response to foreign materials in the human body. Discuss the processes of exchange of O2 and CO2 that occur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals.
Include in your answer a description of the transport of these gases in the blood. The graph below shows the response of the human immune system to exposure to an antigen. Use this graph to answer part a and part b of this question. Discuss the processes of cleavage, gastrulation, and neurulation in the frog embryo; tell what each process accomplishes.
Describe an experiment that illustrates the importance of induction in development. The evolutionary success of organisms depends on reproduction. Some groups of organisms reproduce asexually, some reproduce sexually, while others reproduce both sexually and asexually.
Discuss the sources and actions of each of the following pairs of hormones in humans and describe the feedback mechanisms that control their release. Beginning at the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, describe the physical and biochemical events involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber.
Include the structure of the fiber in your discussion. Describe the negative and positive feedback loops, and discuss how feedback mechanisms regulate each of the following. Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells.
Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates:. For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules or ions. Be sure to relate structure to function in each example. Define the following plant responses and explain the mechanism of control for each.
Cite experimental evidence as part of your discussion. Describe the structure of a bean seed and discuss its germination to the seedling stage. Include in your essay hormonal controls, structural changes, and tissue differentiation. Describe the effects of plant hormones on plant growth and development.
Design an experiment to demonstrate the effect of one of these plant hormones on plant growth and development. Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to the atmosphere. Explain the mechanisms involved in conducting water through these tissues. Discuss the adaptations that have enabled flowering plants to overcome the following problems associated with life on land.
A group of students designed an experiment to measure transpiration rates in a particular species of herbaceous plant. Plants were divided into four groups and were exposed to the following conditions. The cumulative water loss due to transpiration of water from each plant was measured at minute intervals for 30 minutes.
Water loss was expressed as milliliters of water per square centimeter of leaf surface area. The data for all plants in Group I room conditions were averaged. The average cumulative water loss by the plants in Group I is presented in the table below.
Numerous environmental variables influence plant growth. Three students each planted a seedling of the same genetic variety in the same type of container with equal amounts of soil from the same source. Their data are shown below. Describe the trophic levels in a typical ecosystem. Discuss the flow of energy through the ecosystem, the relationship between the different trophic levels, and the factors that limit the number of trophic levels.
Describe and give an example of each of the following. Include in your discussion the selection advantage of each. Describe the process of ecological succession from a pioneer community to a climax community. Include in your answer a discussion of species diversity and interactions, accumulation of biomass, and energy flow. Describe releasers, imprinting, and communications, as each of these terms relates to animal behavior. You may include in your answer a discussion of the classical studies of Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and Karl von Frisch.
Describe the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Trace these elements from the point of their release from a decaying animal to their incorporation into a living animal. Living organisms play an important role in the recycling of many elements within an ecosystem.
Discuss how various types of organisms and their biochemical reactions contribute to the recycling of either carbon or nitrogen in an ecosystem. Include in your answer one way in which human activity has an impact in the nutrient cycle you have chosen. Survival depends on the ability of an organism to respond to changes in its environment. Some plants flower in response to changes in day length.
Some mammals may run or fight when frightened. For both of these examples, describe the physiological mechanisms involved in the response. Interdependence in nature is illustrated by the transfer of energy through trophic levels. The diagram below depicts the transfer of energy in a food web of an Arctic lake located in Alaska J. Choose ONE of the variables that you identified and design a controlled experiment to test your hypothetical explanation.
Describe results that would support or refute your hypothesis. Describe how the following adaptations have increased the evolutionary success of the organisms that possess them. Include in your discussion the structure and function related to each adaptation. Describe the anatomical and functional similarities and difference within each of the following pairs of structures.
Discuss how each of the following has contributed to the evolutionary success of the organisms in which they are found. Angiosperms flowering plants and vertebrates obtain nutrients from their environment in different ways. The problem of survival of animals on land are very different from those of survival of animals in an aquatic environment.
Describe four problems associated with animal survival in terrestrial environments but not in aquatic environments. For each problem, explain an evolutionary solution. The survival of organisms depends on regulatory mechanisms at various levels. Explain how each is regulated. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration recycle oxygen in ecosystems. Respond to TWO and only two of the following:. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels.
Plasma: It is the pipe of a cell, through which passing going and coming of material takes place. Cell Wall: It is the outermost wall of a cell which protects cells from the external cells. Nucleus: It contains the Genetic properties of a cell which is fundamental to any cell. Plastids: it changes the reaction processes with the help of chlorophyll. Mitochondria: these are biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Answer: 1. It support structural base 2. Carrier of molecules 4. Provide information of identification markers 5. It creates "diffusion" of water and gases in both cells like hypotonic solution, isotonic solution and hypertonic solution. Answer: There are: 1. Answer: Nucleus is the fundamental base of the cell and has chromatic thread-like structures which contain DNA.
Answer: Nuclear membrane has outer double layer which are as follows: 1. Chromosomes 2. Answer: They are rod-like structures, containing DNA and protein. Answer: The part of the nucleus in which nucleic acid is present is called Nucleotide. Answer: Cytoplasm refers to "cyto" means cell and "plasm" means liquid, the liquid which is present in a cell is called cytoplasm. It is a mixture of water, salt, and protein. Organelles each of these perform specific activity for the cell.
Their arrangement of fine fibers in a complex situation. Answer: It works: 1. Answer: Some specific components in a cell , which performs different functions are called organelles. For example: mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and lysosomes. Answer: It is a connector of things or products which are present in a cell to Endoplasmic Reticulum, therefore moving from one side to another.
It acts as storage, modification and packaging of products in vesicles. Answer: The work of lysosome is to clean the cell from inside by elimination of wastage. During these alterations in a cell's metabolism When a cell is damaged, lysosomes can explode and enzymes digest their own cells. So, these are called "suicide bags". Write some similarities of plant cell animal cell.
What is the difference between a cell wall and cell membrane? Answer: Cell membrane is outer membrane and fragile It controls the passage of coming and going out of the cell. The plasma membrane is made up of phospholipid bilayer, embedded proteins and some carbohydrates. On the other side, Cell wall is generally permeable, it is non-living and quite thick in plant cells, it is formed of cellulose,hemicellulose and pectin, and which supports and protects the membrane.
In the conduction of the contraction stimulus. What are the plastids in plant cells and give any reason for function in plant cells? Answer: Plastids are organelle of having a double layer in plant cells for the processes of photosynthesis especially in eukaryotic cells and food storage. Answer: Vacuoles are larger and solid filled and fluid filled, bounded by membrane spaces which act as a kind of storage sacs. They have clear spaces with water or other substances in solution with non- living structures.
Answer: Vacuole helps in storage of food, pigments, water, and other waste substances or essential substances in certain amounts. They give turgidity in a cell. Answer: Ribosomes are spherical, small sized particles or granules, either within the cytoplasm or on the external of ER. Answer: These cells provide the additional support in a cell to grow in vacant spaces such as in shoots and leaves. It is an elongated and thickened wall of cells of compounds of cellulose and pectin.
Answer: CO 2 by the diffusion process and water moves by the osmosis process goes in the direction of concentration of low from the high concentration. Get Your Online Demo Class. Whatsapp Us Send Message. Book a Free Demo Now! Avail Your Free Demo Name. Contact No. Questions: 1. Describe Cell? Related Links Online Education Resources. Get Top Ranked University. Need Online Learning. Doing MCQ in Exams. Multicellular Organisms. Answer: Adenosine triphosphate, an energy reactor.
Answer: Membrane or cell membrane. Answer: Deoxyribonucleic acid.