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Nutrition page 1
Nutrition page 2
Nutrition page 3
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1.Vitamins A, C, E, B-carotene, selenium

Vitamin A appears to work by keeping cells differentiated (which decreases growth rate and make them more benign

Cancer terms

a.Cancer -Cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal functioning

b.Neoplasm -New growth

c.Tumor -rapid and/or uncontrolled increase in number of cells

d.Benign neoplasm

1)Pose no problems (except locally)

2)Cells adhere to one another

3)Do not invade into other tissues

e.Malignant neoplasm


2)Resists treatment

3)Harmful cells don't adhere, they invade surrounding tissues


1)Mass of abnormal tissue

2)Mass of neoplasm
What affects BMR
3) Factors that affect BMR
a) Huge individual variation
b) Gender
' Female = 0.9 kcal/kg/h
' Male = 1.0 kcal/kg/h
4) Example: male
132 lb = 60 kg
60 kg *1.0 kcal/kg/h * 24 h/d = 1440 kcal/
' Not much difference
when corrected for lean body mass
(body weight without fat)
c) Lean body mass
(lower LBM then lower BMR)
d) Age
(decrease of about 5% per decade after maturity)
(may be just decline in LBM)
e) Height
(shorter people have lower BMR)
(less surface area)
f) Nutritional status
(starvation and dieting reduce BMR)
g) Fever (increases BMR)
h) Pregnancy and lactation
(increases BMR)
i) Environmental Temperature
(cold or hot increases BMR)
What triggers appetite and satiation
Niacin deficiency
4. Niacin
a. Definition/classification
1) Water soluble vitamin
2) Found as niacin and nicotinic acid
3) Some of the active forms are NAD and NADP
b. Functions
1) Transfer of energy from ATP
2) Formation of Fatty acids
c. Deficiency sign/symptoms
1) Pellagra (classic)
a. Still seen in
' poor urban US
' Africa
' Asia
2) Weakness
3) Irritability
4) Depression

a. Definition/classification
1) Found as phosphate
(a negatively charged oxygen containing molecule)
b. Functions
1) Part of
a) DNA structure
b) RNA structure
c) Phospholipids - Makes that part water soluble
d) ATP - Contains the high energy bond

Calculation RDA for protein
Protein Requirement (RDA)
a. Adult
0.8 g/kg body weight
b. Based on
1) Average loss of nitrogen per day
2) Calculation of how much protein is required to replace nitrogen losses
3) Protein quality
4) Adjustment for population variability

Transamination, Deamination
1. Transamination
Transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to the
carbon skeleton to form a new (different) amino acid
a. Used for
1) formation of nonessential amino acids
2) excretion of amine (nitrogen)
3) energy production from amino acids
b. Vitamin B6 is needed
In the absence of Vitamin B6, all amino acids would be essential.
2. Deamination
Removal of the amino group from an amino acid
a. Used for
1) excretion of amine
2) energy production from amino acid
b. Vitamin B6 is also needed
Nitrogen balance
Nitrogen excretion
a. Loss of nitrogen in
1) Feces (as protein)
2) Skin, Hair, Nails (as protein)
3) Urine (as urea)
b. Excess nitrogen (amino acids)
1) Synthesized into urea in the liver
2) Urea is transported to the kidney and excreted in the urine
Vitamin associated with protein metabolism
Vitamin B6
Recommended % body fat
1) The percent of body fat varies widely among
a) Average US male: 15% body fat
b) Average US female: 25% body fat

Thiamin deficiency
c. Deficiency sign/symptoms
1) Beriberi (classic)
a) Wet beriberi
' Edema
' Heart failure
b) Dry Beriberi
' Weakness
' ...

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