AskEssays.com - Discover essay samples

Native Americans

4.9 of 5.0 (94 reviews)

Contains
798 words
Category
History

Native Americans Page 1
Native Americans Page 2
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.

Native Americans


American Indian Wars There is perhaps a tendency to view the record of the military in terms of conflict, that may be why the U.S. Army's operational experience in the quarter century following the Civil War became known as the Indian wars. Previous struggles with the Indian, dating back to colonial times, had been limited. There was a period where the Indian could withdraw or be pushed into vast reaches of uninhabited and as yet unwanted territory in the west. By 1865 the safety valve was fast disappearing. As the Civil War was closed, white Americans in greater numbers and with greater energy than before resumed the quest for land, gold, commerce, and adventure that had been largely interrupted by the war. The besieged red man, with white civilization pressing in and a main source of livelihood, the buffalo, threatened with extinction, was faced with a fundamental choice: surrender or fight. Many chose to fight, and over the next 25 years the struggle ranged over the plains, mountains, and the deserts of the American West. These guerrilla wars were characterized by skirmishes, pursuits, raids, massacres, expeditions, battles, and campaigns of varying size and intensity. In 1865, there was a least 15 million buffalo, ten years later, fewer than a thousand remained. The army and the Bureau of Indian Affairs went along with and even encouraged the slaughter of the animals. By destroying the buffalo herds, the whites were destroying the Indian's main source of food and supplies. The only thing the Indians could do was fight to preserve their way of life. There was constant fighting among the Indian and whites as the Indians fought to keep their civilization. Indian often retaliated against the whites for earlier attacks that whites had imposed on them. They often attacked wagon trains, stage coaches, and isolated ranches. When the army became more involved in the fighting, the Indians started to focus on the white soldiers. In 1862, when the north and south were locked in Civil War, Minnesota felt the fury of an even more fundamental internal conflict. The Santees, an eastern branch of the Sioux Nation, having endured ten years of traumatic change on the upper Minnesota River, launched the first great attack in the Indian wars. Eleven years earlier the tribe had sold 24 million acres of hunting ground for a lump sum of $1,665,000 and the promise of future cash annuities. The Santee's culture was not only disrupted, the Sioux gradually found themselves dependent on trade goods, which made them easy prey for the white merchants. The merchant would give them credit and collect directly from the government. The Indians saw little of the annuities for which they had sold their birthright. Their anger finally reached the flash point when, following a winter of near starvation, the annual payment failed to arrive on time. Bursting from their reservation, they killed more than 450 settlers in the region before they were defeated by a hastily assembled group of raw recruits led by Colonel Henry Sibley. Later the killing of the white settlers was described as "the most fearful Indian massacre in history. Four weeks after the rampage began, 2,000 Indian men, women and children surrendered, 392 prisoners were quickly tried and 307 sentenced to death. Sibley favored execution at once. But Bishop Whipple of Minnesota went to Washington to plead for clemency. After a long appraisal President Lincoln commuted most of the sentences except for the proven rapists and murderers. On the day after Christmas 1862, 38 Sioux warriors were brought to a specially built gallows and hanged at the same time. Three of the leaders of the massacre had gotten away. Shakopee and Medicine Bottle had escaped to Canada, they were kidnapped back into the U.S. and were duly executed. Little Crow went to North Dakota and returned to Minnesota the following summer and was shot by a farmer while picking berries. Red Cloud was beginning to emerge as a major leader in 1863, when settlers and miners began to pour over a new road called the Powder River Trail, or the Bozeman Trail after the scout who blazed it. This road was to connect Fort Laramie, Wyoming, to the new mining centers right through the best of all the Sioux hunting grounds. The Indians under Red Cloud's leadership harassed travelers on the trail with such determination that in the summer of 1866 white leaders arranged a council at Fort Laramie. At the outset of the council it appeared that peaceful use of the trail might be negotiated as long as travelers did not disturb the game. But as serious talks got underway, a Colonel Henry Carrington marched into Fort Laramie with a large body of troops and plans to establish forts to protect the trail against Indian raids; he made no secret of his intentions. ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 798 words of 1595.

Keywords: native americans today, native americans and alcohol, native americans history, native americans for kids, native americans definition, native americans in the revolutionary war, native americans in philanthropy, native americans of new york

Similar essays


Marine Corps

The following was a submitted report for a U.S. History research paper assignment We fight our country\'s battles in the air, on land and sea. First to fight for right and freedom, and to keep our honor clean; We are proud to claim the title of United States Marine. Our flag\'s unfurled to every breeze from dawn to setting sun. We have fought i...

95 reviews
Download
The Olmec Civilization

The Olmec were Mesoamerica's first civilization. They were located in Laguna de los Cerros, tres Zapotes, San Lorenzo, La Venta, and the Tuxtla Mountains, in Mexico. The purpose of this report is to show how the Olmec lived, their beliefs, and their spectacular art. The Olmec were a mother culture to later civilizations. The...

44 reviews
Download
Amelia Earhart

Amelia Mary Earhart was born on July 24, 1897 at her grandparents' home in Atchison, Kansas. It was not till 1908 that the girls moved to Des Moines to be with their parents, Amelia was 10 years old when she saw her first airplane at the Iowa State Fair. It would be more than a decade before Amelia's interest in aviation would...

35 reviews
Download
Communism

In the beginning seemed to the people of Russia as a utopian ideal. The promise of the elimination of classes, of guaranteed employment, "The creation of a comprehensive social security and welfare system for all citizens that would end the misery of workers once and for all." Lenin's own interpretation of the Marxian critique was that to achieve...

149 reviews
Download
Rosa Parks

Racism and prejudice have been dominant issues in the United States for many years. Being such a major issue is society, racism is also a major theme in one of the best pieces of American Literature, To Kill A Mockingbird. People, particularly African Americans, have been denied basic human rights such as getting a fair trial, eating in a certain r...

118 reviews
Download
Contributions Of Ancient Egypt

Many of ancient Egypt's contribution to society not only advanced them as a civilization but left an impressionable impact on the accomplishments of the modern day. Nestled within the fertile valley of the Nile, Egypt was protected on all sides from invasion and at the same time uninfluenced by many outside cultures. Although its overall isolati...

153 reviews
Download
Hiroshema

HIROSHEMA War is an ever changing, advancing type of combat. From swords to guns, the weapons used are always developing and becoming much more powerful. Nuclear bombs are one of the most forceful weapons that exist today. On August 6, 1945, during World War II, the United States dropped an Atomic bomb on Hiroshima, a Japanese city and M...

179 reviews
Download
African Reaction

How the European Settlers Further Oppressed the Native Africans In the last few readings and cases studies, women and the peasant farmers were the subject and target of much of the white European aggression. The whites saw the women and peasants as minor threats to their occupation of the land and used this idea to further the oppression in...

198 reviews
Download
Intro to islam

Introduction To Islam Islam and Muslims The word "Islam" is an Arabic word which means "submission to the will of God". This word comes from the same root as the Arabic word "salam", which means "peace". As such, the religion of Islam teaches that in order to achieve true peace of mind and surety of heart, one must submit to God and live...

157 reviews
Download
General william tecumseh sherm

General William Tecumseh Sherman General William T. Sherman, one of the greatest Civil War generals, proved to be an extremely significant factor for the Northern cause due to his mastery of military warfare and thus notable contribution to the South's defeat. Despite of the fact that early on his military career looked quite grim and...

193 reviews
Download
Causes of world war i

Causes of World War I The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now. The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a S...

94 reviews
Download
New York Times Co

. V. United S The New York Times printed allegedly classified documents that leaked from the Pentagon about the war in Vietnam. A 47 volume classified history of the American involvement in Vietnam was distributed to the Times and, later, the Post by Daniel Ellsberg, a minor writer in the Pentagon Papers. The Times published these papers b...

183 reviews
Download
Ben franklin 2

Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography is broken up into four integral parts, all written during different periods in Franklin's life. The first part, addressed to his son, William, was written when Franklin was sixty-five years old. Before he began the task of recording his past, Franklin carefully wrote out a list of topics he would narrate to his...

101 reviews
Download
Kamicaze pilots 2

Kamikaze Pilots During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash into carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known as the Kamikaze pilots. Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pil...

101 reviews
Download
Atsisiųsti šį darbą