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Jobs of the 18th century

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Jobs of the 19[th] century

> Employment in the 19th century was primarily for those in the middle class or for the poor.

> The upper class did not work because they were aristocracy or merchants who had earned enough money to quit working.

> Jobs for the middle class and poor in the Victorian era were unsafe because there were no regulations to limit hours or to protect against hazardous materials and conditions.

Women

> Upper- and middle-class women in the 19th century did not have careers.

> Universities barred women from employment in white-collar jobs like doctors, architects or bankers.

> Women who worked had jobs such as agricultural hands, miners, seamstresses, piece workers who made manufactured goods at home, barmaids and street vendors.

> Women who were educated but impoverished, from middle-class families that had fallen on hard times, worked as nannies or governesses who earned a meager salary. However, the most prevalent employment for a woman in the Victorian era was as a domestic servant.

> This work ranged from the humblest beginning as a scullery maid who took out slop to a more coveted role as the housekeeper and then up to the prized occupation of being a lady's maid who accompanied her female employer as a chaperon.


Children

> The upper classes had private tutors and governesses, while the poor had dame schools with non-professional instructors or no access to education

> Children as young as 6 labored in textile factories, in occupations such as flower girls or as rag pickers.

> Hazardous professions like chimney sweeping and mining employed children to fit into the tight spaces of chimneys and caves.

> Diseases like black lung from chimney soot or coal dust cut short the lives of these children.

Workhouses

> Workhouses were the 19th century version of welfare.

> The British government forced impoverished people into workhouses under the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834.

> Before this law, churches administered relief through decentralized charity in the homes of the needy.

> The workhouse gave inmates demeaning occupations, like picking oakum, old ropes, apart to make ship caulking or breaking stones to pave roads.

> The workhouse alternative was for the individual to take jobs as street sweepers who brushed away debris and manure for passersby, or quasi-legal jobs such as sewer kosher or hunting for lost valuables in the city drains.


Men

> Professional jobs like doctor or lawyer were for men.

> These men were from upper-class society, and as such, had more educational opportunities. Lower-class males took jobs dangerous jobs as coal miners or knackers, who rendered horses for glue.

Aristocrats

The highest power, authority and social status holder of the 19[th] century England social hierarchy were the aristocrats. These people usually were not involved ...

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Keywords: jobs in the 18th century, jobs in the 18th century london, jobs in 18th century england, jobs in 18th century france, jobs in 18th century scotland, jobs in 18th century britain, common jobs in the 18th century, what was the 18th century known for

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