AskEssays.com - Discover essay samples

Japanese media overview

4.9 of 5.0 (168 reviews)

Contains
604 words
Category
Other

Japanese media overview Page 1
Japanese media overview Page 2
Japanese media overview Page 3
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.

Japanese media overview


Japanese media overview



Physically, the mass media in Japan are quite similar to those in any developed nation, although perhaps somewhat more advanced. In organizational structure, however, Japanese media are unique. Individual elements of the Japanese media mix may resemble counterparts in other nations, but the combination is purely Japanese.

The primary characteristics of Japanese mass media are the influence of the national daily newspapers and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (Nihon Hoso Kyokai, or NHK) and the relative lack of localism.



The importance of newspapers



Japanese media are dominated by five national daily newspapers. The Asahi, Mainichi, Nihon Keizai, Sankei and Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) all publish both a morning and an evening edition, with total circulation of more than 40 million copies per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 53). Of the world's ten highest daily circulation newspapers, the top three are Japanese, with the fourth highest having a circulation of just over one-third of the circulation of the Yomiuri Shimbun (The United States is not represented in this list) (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 54). It is not surprising that Japan has the highest ratio of newspapers to people in the world, with 578 copies per day for every 1000 people (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 52).

Local newspapers are smaller than the nationals, and many are published only once or twice a week, even in cities with populations above 100,000. However, the national newspapers all have regional sections.

The national daily newspapers are also involved in other media. All of the commercial television networks are either affiliated with or owned by a national newspaper (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 115). They are also heavily involved in radio broadcasting, although their presence is less influential.

Japanese book and magazine readership are also quite impressive. In addition, Japan has a thriving comic book, or manga, industry. Japanese comic books are for all ages and all types of people. One can see people reading manga in restaurants, coffee shops, trains, buses, even schools and offices. Sales of manga for 1984 totaled 297 billion yen (US$ 1.2 billion), although this figure does not include any of the income from manga-related products (Schodt, 1986, p. 138).



Nature of television broadcasting



There are five major commercial and two public television networks in Japan. The public networks, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) general and education, are funded by annual license fees paid for every television set in the country. Although NHK is an independent entity, it enjoys a close and favored relationship with the government. NHK is modeled after the British Broadcasting Corporation in many ways. NHK also oversees radio networks, including shortwave broadcasts. In addition, NHK runs a publishing arm that prints workbooks that accompany its educational programs and guidebooks that provide additional insight into its historical dramas.

On average, Japanese citizens watch over three hours of television per day. The average Japanese television set is turned on for eight hours and eight minutes per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 105). 54.9 percent of Japanese citizens surveyed by NHK (1995) watch at least three hours of television per day on average. Generally speaking, Japan is a heavy television viewing nation.

Local broadcasting is relatively uncommon in Japan. With a population approaching 200 million, there are barely more than 100 local affiliates of national television networks, with these local affiliates carrying the network schedule for 70 to 90 percent of the broadcast day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 113). Large cities, such as Tokyo and Osaka, certainly get a great amount of local broadcasting, whereas a city of more than 250,000 (Mito in Ibaraki prefecture) has no local television broadcasting, but ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 604 words of 1207.

Keywords: media coverage japan, japanese media

Similar essays


Rewards in society

Micro Theme Assignment #1, Position #2 Our present society is composed of a ranking structure based on the premise that unequal distribution of rewards such as status, resources, and power is natural, right and good; and for this type of structure to stand, there must be many on the bottom, and a few at the top. Persons in the structure mus...

184 reviews
Download
Burger Wars

Forty million customers are served every day by America's biggest hamburger chains--McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's. In fact, many fast food restaurants are becoming an extension of the family kitchen. About two-thirds of all fast food is takeout, and most of that goes home. Some chains are beginning to put mobile units in unpredicta...

167 reviews
Download
Same sex marriages

Same-sex marriages The proposed legalization of same-sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. Presently, it is one of the most vigorously advocated reforms discussed in law reviews, one of the most explosive political questions facing lawmakers, and one of the most provocative issues...

102 reviews
Download
Endagerment of the grizzlies

With all the new and advanced technology that is accessible today, who has time to enjoy or care about the great outdoors? Unfortunately, much of the wilderness and the animals within it are gradually fading away. There are many animals that have already been extinct and many more will soon be put on the list of extinction. In the second iss...

29 reviews
Download
Serach Engines

When the term "internet" became a household saying, such did words like Excite, Yahoo, and Lycos. These were the so-called portals that directed Internet first-timers to their destinations and virtually walked them through the World Wide Web. They were and still are the fist place visitors go when they start to "surf" the web. Yet these portals...

88 reviews
Download
Beer

Historically hops, yeast, malted barley, and water have all played the greatest and most important role in society. For almost 8000 years these ingredients have been mixed and have been appreciated by all classes of society in almost all civilizations. The old cliche "accident is the mother of invention" is a phrase that definitely holds tru...

114 reviews
Download
MBO in Russia

Introduction 'The emphasis (of MBO) is on trying to predict and influence the future rather than on responding and reacting by the seat of the pants. It is also a 'results-oriented' philosophy of management, one of which emphasizes accomplishments and results. The focus is generally on change and on improving both individual and organizationa...

205 reviews
Download
Performance enhancing drugs

Performance-enhancing drugs - Performance-Enhancing Drugs - - Artificial Entertainment? At a press conference in April, representatives from various professional sports joined together to discuss the effects of performance-enhancing drugs on their particular sport. Unanimously, the representatives decided that these drugs take away from the...

6 reviews
Download
A Public Relations Proposal For The American Egg Board

, 1997 "AN EGG IS ALWAYS AN ADVENTURE" - OSCAR WILDE Eggs should be avoided because they are high in cholesterol. This is the biggest MYTH that has cracked the good reputation of the egg in the past years. In 1945, the number of eggs consumed per capita each year was 402. Then the news broke - scientists discovered a link between high cholesterol l...

30 reviews
Download
Why do all modern cars look al

Why Do All Modern Cars Look Alike? We ask ourselves every time we see heavy traffic, is there no variance anymore amongst car models? In the old days, as a matter of fact only five ore ten years ago every single car brand seemed to have it's own personality, today they look more like a cluster of copycats. What went wrong?...

51 reviews
Download
I and ii thessalonians

The books of I and II Thessalonians, which are in the New Testament, are both letters to a church that Paul the apostle helped establish in the biblical city of Thessalonica. First Thessalonians is agreed by biblical scholars to be written by Paul. The author of II Thessalonians, however, is still being debated about. In II Thessalonians its...

36 reviews
Download
Hawaiian Chant

From what I understand the chant Kamamalu was sung sometime during a trip to England. I think it has a really solemn and somewhat sad mood to it. Because from what I got from it over all is that she did not want to go but was commanded to by a higher power, which I will explain later. What I notice mostly about this chant was in the way it was or...

17 reviews
Download
Intuition

I have taken a great interest in the category of "". This topic became very fascinating to me about 3 years ago. Actually in some incidences I depend on my intuitive sense to guide me in the right direction. This essay will deal with a in depth look into the meaning of "intuition".Also a overview concerning two songs including lyrics. I truly...

20 reviews
Download
Islam mosques

Mosques A mosque is a Muslim?s house of prayer. Mosques are not only the center of religious prayer among Muslims but also the center of the Muslim community in the area. However, Muslims feel it is not necessary to pray in mosques, Mohammed taught that Prayer can be held anywhere to Allah. Muhammad also taught that whoever builds a mosqu...

138 reviews
Download
Atsisiųsti šį darbą