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Hydrogen 2

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Hydrogen 2

Hydrogen in it's liquid form has been used in space vehicles for years.

Hydrogen has a high combustion energy per pound relative to any other fuel,

meaning hydrogen is more efficient on a weight basis than fuels currently used in air or ground transportation. Hydrogen is the universe's most abundant element. Most of that hydrogen though, is tied up in chemical bonds. Hydrogen can exist in either a gaseous form or a liquid form. Hydrogen is The liquid form is usually used for storage while the gaseous form is used as a heat transfer, and also as a cooling agent in nuclear power plants. The name hydrogen is Greek for water former. Hydrogen was once called "inflammable air" by a British scientist names Joseph Priestly . French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier then renamed it to today's name, hydrogen.

Hydrogen can be produced in many ways. Electrolysis is a common way hydrogen is produced. Electric current is passed through water which releases the lements it is made of. These elements are hydrogen and oxygen. Today's efficiency of this method is about 65 percent, however 80-85 percent are possible with more research. Another method of producing hydrogen is through chemical means. It is a scientific fact that every metal that is less noble than hydrogen will isplace hydrogen from water . Common materials used in this reaction is sodium or potassium . Sodium plus water will produce hydrogen , NaOH, and heat . Other

reactions include the "producer" reaction that was discovered in 1800 . It involves combining heat, carbon, and water. It then yields hydrogen an carbon monoxide .

Bacteria can also be a hydrogen producer. Bacteria and other microorganisms may

release hydrogen in the process of creating heavier hydrocarbons or oxygen for

assimilation . A process known as Photoconversion or photosynthesis involves

light combining with water, which produces hydrogen and oxygen .

Hydrogen can be stored in a variety of ways. Compressed gas storage and

transportation has been widely used for more than 100 years. Common materials

for storage canisters are mild steel, aluminum, and composites. Storage pressure

for hydrogen ranges from 3,000 to 10,000 P.S.I . Cooling hydrogen to below the

boiling point of -252.7' C allows storage as a cryogenic liquid without the need for pressurization . Cryogenic storage of hydrogen allows regular commercial

shipment by truck and rail. Many commercial processes such as glass

manufacturing, brazing, heat treating, and semiconductor manufacturing are served by deliveries of liquid hydrogen. Liquid hydrogen has also facilitated the U.S. space exploration program. If liquid hydrogen is suddenly subjected to a vacuum it will evaporate with a subsequent cooling of the liquid mass will cause the temperature to fall to below the freezing point of -259' C and solid hydrogen will be produced . This mixture of liquid and solid hydrogen is called "slush" and provides more dense storage of hydrogen than liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen can also be stored in metal hydrides . Hydrogen is pumped into the interaom spaces of a granular metal. When the hydrogen needs to be released the metal is heated. This system is reliable and compact, but is very expensive.

The energy from hydrogen can be harnessed in many ways. One method of

doing this is using a fuel cell. A fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity via a modified oxidation process . The process also produces heat, water, and carbon dioxide. By-products such as nitrous oxide and sulfur are eliminated because of the low reaction temperatures of 200' - 500' C. Fuel cells create electricity more efficient than ...

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Keywords: hydrogen 2 oxygen, hydrogen 2023, hydrogen 2 mass, hydrogen 2 protons neutrons electrons, hydrogen 2 atomic number, hydrogen 2 atomic mass, hydrogen 2 neutrons, hydrogen 2 mass number

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