Papermaking goes as far back as 105 A.D. when Ts'ai Lun, an official
at the Imperial Court of China, made a sheet of paper using mulberry and
other fibres along with fish nets, rags and hemp waste. The first paper
was made in 793 A.D. in Baghdad during Harun-ar-Raschid's rule, with the
golden age of Islamic culture that brought papermaking to Europe.
By the 14th century paper mills existed all over Europe, particularly
in Spain, Italy, France and Germany. During the 1450's paper printing(by
machines) was introduced and the demand for paper increased all over the
world. Papermaking remained unchanged till the 18th century, with linen
and cotton rags used for raw materials. This soon presented a shortage,
since no more rags and linen were available and it is was apparent that a
process for utilizing a more abundant material was required.
IMPROVEMENTS IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
In 1800 a book was published which stated practical methods for
manufacturing paper from wood and vegetable pulps. Soon many publishing
processes were developed and the paper industry no longer had to depend on
rags and linen and this made mass production possible. There were two main
kinds of pulping processes used in the 18th century and they were,
mechanical or groundwood pulping and chemical pulping. Mechanical pulping
contains certain wood components and therefore, it is not suitable for
paper in which high whiteness and permanence are required. Mechanical pulp
was first made in Germany in the 1840's, but was not used much until 1870.
Chemical wood pulp is ...
in'tel'lect 'int-'l-,ect n [ L us , fr. -, intellegere to understand ] 1 a: the power of knowing b: the capacity for thought esp. when highly developed 2 a: a person of notable - Websters New World dictionary. " is and always will be of high statue. At least it should be" , in raw form, is the power of knowing. The intellect will alwa...
have been the guiding force of human space exploration for a long as space exploration has existed. The following material that is being presented is overview of satellite history and I hope all readers of this material find that it is informative and interesting. A satellite is any object that orbits a larger object. This being so makes...
The schedulilng of hours of work is undoubtedly one of the major social problems of industrial society. Statistic estimates that 30% of Canada's workforce are involved in some kinds of shiftwork. Of those, 33% work irregular shifts, just under 30% work rotating shifts, 17% work long term evening shifts, 10% work on call, 3% work split shifts,...
Critically Discuss the Use of the Scientific Method in Psychology This essay examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a method primarily for gathering research on human subjects that can be examined for later use. It will give a basic outline of the methods of investigation, their uses and their suitability. I will also look at the sci...
Nuclear weapons, is one of today's most talked about issue. The United States alone has enough missiles to destroy Earth a few times over. Americans, then should not waste their money on taxes for building more weapons! There are other issues America must be concerned with. Why not stop the building of weapons and use the money for other needed...