- Discover essay samples


4.9 of 5.0 (102 reviews)

568 words

Hemophilia Page 1
Hemophilia Page 2
Hemophilia Page 3
Hemophilia Page 4
Hemophilia Page 5
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.


In the human body, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair inherited through the egg from the mother, and the other inherited through the sperm of the father. Of these chromosomes, those that determine sex are X and Y. Females have XX and males have XY. In addition to the information on sex, 'the X chromosomes carry determinants for a number of other features of the body including the levels of factor VIII and factor IX.'1 If the genetic information determining the factor VIII and IX level is defective, haemophilia results. When this happens, the protein factors needed for normal blood clotting are effected. In males, the single X chromosome that is effected cannot compensate for the lack, and hence will show the defect. In females, however, only one of the two chromosomes will be abnormal. (unless she is unlucky enough to inherit haemophilia from both sides of the family, which is rare.)2 The other chromosome is likely to be normal and she can therefore compensate for this defect. There are two types of haemophilia, haemophilia A and B. Haemophilia A is a hereditary disorder in which bleeding is due to deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII (VIII:C)3. In most of the

cases, this coagulant protein is reduced but in a rare amount of

cases, this protein is present by immunoassay but defective.4

Haemophilia A is the most common severe bleeding disorder and

approximately 1 in 10,000 males is effected. The most common types

of bleeding are into the joints and muscles. Haemophilia is severe

if the factor VIII:C levels are less that 1 %, they are moderate if

the levels are 1-5% and they are mild if they levels become 5+%.5


Those with mild haemophilia bleed only in response to major trauma

or surgery. As for the patients with severe haemophilia, they can

bleed in response to relatively mild trauma and will bleed


In haemophiliacs, the levels of the factor VIII:C are reduced.

If the plasma from a haemophiliac person mixes with that of a

normal person, the Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) should become

normal. Failure of the PTT to become normal is automatically

diagnostic of the presence of a factor VIII inhibitor. The standard

treatment of the haemophiliacs is primarily the infusion of factor

VIII concentrates, now heat-treated to reduce the chances of

transmission of AIDS.6 In the case of minor bleeding, the factor

VIII:C levels should only be raised to 25% with one infusion. For

moderate bleeding, 'it is adequate to raise the level initially to

50% and maintain the level at greater that 25% with repeated

infusion for 2-3 days. When major surgery is to be performed, one

raises the factor VIII:C level to 100% and then maintains the

factor level at greater than 50% continuously for 10-14 days.'7

Haemophilia B, the other type of haemophilia, is a result of

the deficiency of the coagulation factor IX - also known as

Christmas disease. This sex-linked disease is caused by the reduced

amount of the factor IX. Unlike haemophilia A, ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 568 words of 1135.

Keywords: hemophilia b, hemophilia treatment, hemophilia a, hemophilia meaning, hemophilia symptoms, hemophilia causes, hemophiliac meaning, hemophilia c

Similar essays

Enviromental science profit or

As we near the end of the millennium, the home planet that has for so long been our gracious host is suffering from the apathy and wreckless consumption of natural resources. Awareness is the gravest of concerns. Ignorance is not a bliss, for we must become aware of the problems that endanger our environment in order to save it. Unfortunately,...

16 reviews
Aurora borealis

Near the Earth's poles a magnificent spectacle of shimmering colored light can sometimes be seen --- the aurora. The aurora is called the aurora borealis (Northern lights) and the aurora austrails (Southern lights); it can appear as bright as a full moon. The aurora usually appears near the Earth's poles, and more northerly (or southerly) you...

186 reviews
The Chemistry of Natural Water

INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in...

56 reviews
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

(ALS), sometimes referred to as "Lou Gehrig's Disease," is a progressive fatal neuromuscular disease that attacks nerve cells and pathways in the brain and spinal cord. Motor neurons, among the largest of all nerve cells, reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to muscles throughout the body with connections to the bra...

162 reviews
Give an overview of life through the tertiary, in relation t

The tertiary consisted of two main epochs. The Paleocene, the Eocene and the Oligocene, which make up the Paleogene; and the Miocene and Pliocene, which make up the Neogene. The close of the Cretaceous Period marked a major transition in Earth?s history. Ammonoids and marine reptiles disappeared from the sea. Marine taxa that persist as famil...

75 reviews
Artificial Intelligence Report

Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere noveltie...

10 reviews
The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect occurs when gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and CFCs trap heat in the atmosphere by acting as a pane of glass in a car. _The glass_ lets the sun light in to make heat but when the heat tries to get out the gases absorb the heat. Holding this heat in causes heat waves, droughts and...

115 reviews

Myopic little men in tuxedos, or highly efficient land/water animals? Recent research indicates there?s more to penguins than meets the eye. If you?ve every wondered what it would be like to be able to see as clearly under water as you can on land, just ask the nearest penguin.Most aquatic animals are short-sighted on land. Most...

31 reviews
How Temperature can Affect the Rate of Reaction

The Problem: I am going to find out how temperature can affect the rate of reaction. Background information: Factors that change the rates of reactions are: ? Temperature ' an increase in temperature will make the reaction occur faster. This happens because the particles of that substance move faster when it is heated. Because...

161 reviews
Global warming 2

- Global Warming I have chosen to speak about Global warming because it is a major scientific issue in the media. Problems facing the environment today are vast and diverse. Destruction of the world's rain forests, the depletion of the ozone layer, air pollution, water pollution, chemical pollution and global warming are just some of...

155 reviews
Cadmium and sewage sludge

This essay concentrates on the heavy metal cadmium, and its occurrence in the environment, its pathways into and out of the human body and its movement into and out of Sewage sludge. Firstly, I will provide a clear definition of the Heavy Metal Cadmium. What is Cadmium? Cadmium is a naturally occurring element in the earth's crust. Pure...

30 reviews
Pollution Getting The Best of

Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. It is a major problem in America and as well as the world. Pollution not only damages the environment, but damages us also. It has caused many problems ranging from lung cancer to the greenhouse effect. It is all among us and yet we continue to live in our own...

94 reviews
Endangered species 3

Endangered Species All over the world there are species of animals and plants that are said to be "endangered". By calling them endangered, scientists say that they think the species will become extinct if something isn't done about them. Many more species are now threatened with extinction than ther should be because of many reasons. A sp...

65 reviews
Endangered Species

Endangered species are living things whose population is so reduced that they are threatened with extinction. Thousands of species are included in this category. The International Union for the Conservation of nature and Natural Resources publishes a list of threatened mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and (many people do not consider t...

5 reviews
Atsisiųsti šį darbą