- Discover essay samples

Filial Piety in China

4.9 of 5.0 (36 reviews)

1855 words

Filial Piety in China page 1
Filial Piety in China page 2
Filial Piety in China page 3
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.

Filial Piety in China

By: Liew Hwee Min


Introduction Xiao, the Chinese word for filial piety is the defining feature in Chinese culture as filial piety was extolled as the highest virtue in China for centuries. I subscribe to the school of thought that filial piety is the root of Chinese ethics and "with it all enlightening studies come into existence." Chinese society was built upon the doctrine of filial piety and that it is the theme in Chinese culture, influencing all aspects of Chinese lives. In this essay, I will examine the significance of filial piety in Chinese culture. Albeit I have no wish of making the mistake of generalization, what I seek to define is the undercurrent theme in all Chinese families which I believe is filial piety. As I believe that filial piety is the common thread that runs in every Chinese family. I am fully aware that my study of filial piety does not apply to every Chinese family, so I can only say that I am sure filial piety endures in different forms, having been infiltrated through many generations and eroded by different events. In order to make my stand, I will be exploring the traditional meaning of filial piety in China, if and how various incidents may have impacted filial piety in China. I will also be analyzing the implications of the erosion of filial piety and the importance of filial piety in modern China. Traditional Filial Piety To define traditional filial piety in Chinese culture, it is imperative that I draw on the works of Confucius as Confucianism is the system that has dominated Chinese thought throughout most of history, controlling Chinese education, society and government for some 2,000 years. It would be necessary to take into account Mencius's philosophy as he was also a strong influence on Chinese culture. Xiao in traditional Chinese societies fundamentally means gratitude to one's parents for giving one life and the duty and obligation to repay one's parents for having brought one up. It means love and uncompromising respect for one's parents and total obedience to one's parents. It also means honouring one's parents after their death. However, Xiao has many other connotations in the traditional Chinese culture. It pertains to servitude towards one's parents and the duty to continue the family lineage by producing offspring. It also refers to ancestor worship and respect for all who are more elderly than oneself, love for one's older siblings and good behaviour so as not to bring disgrace and shame to one's family. As early as 87 B.C., Xiao-Jing or Classic of Filial Piety was one of the first texts mastered by children. The compulsory learning of Xiao-Jing served two main purposes. Firstly, children were taught filial piety as a foundation for other virtues such as propriety, wisdom and fidelity. Chinese parents generally believed that if children were brought up in the right environment, they would grow up to become responsible and morally correct adults. Confucian scholars instituted that filial piety is the root of good conduct and without filial piety, men would be rebellious, dishonest and undisciplined. It is stated in the Analects of Confucius, "'filial piety and fraternal submission! - are they not the root of all benevolent actions?" It was believed that filial men would possess the qualities of benevolence, righteousness, desire for peace and harmony and impartiality. Therefore, by teaching children filial piety, parents believed that they were at the same time, providing them with cardinal moral education. Secondly, the traditional Chinese societal and governmental systems as prescribed by Confucius are based on hierarchy. Thus, it was essential that children are trained to respect authority. Filial piety is believed to inculcate the qualities of loyalty to one's country, responsibility towards society and state. If children are taught from young to respect and obey the key authoritarian figure in the household, that is the father, they would from there learn how to respect and obey society's and government's laws and advocates. Mencius held that, " the root of the empire is in the state, and the root of the state is in the family." At the same time, their learning of filial piety would also ingrain in them the importance of maintaining peace and harmony in the family, translating into upholding peace in harmony in society and country, as the family is the primary unit of society in Chinese culture. It is said in The Great Learning that, "'wishing to order well their states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivate the persons. Wishing to cultivate the persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts'" Traditionally, filial piety was only deemed so in its purest definition. It was not only adhered to as a code of conduct, but more importantly, as a code of thought. The most important aspect of filial piety as stated by Confucius was sincerity. He instituted that, " the filial piety of nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support: - without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support from the other?" The Change of Filial Piety in China The erosion of filial piety started as early as the Former Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 8) . It was a period of upheaval as traditional values and social order started to take a backseat to individualistic values. Nonetheless, the value of filial piety survived, only to come under attack again during the May Fourth Movement in 1919. During the May Fourth Movement, many intellectuals such as Xin Qin-Nian and Lu Xun, Wu Yu and Hu Shi criticized the concept of filial piety, claiming it to be the instrument for unquestioned governmental authority, producing citizens who were not capable of original thoughts and opinions, thus creating an obstacle for China to modernize. They also claimed that filial piety, with its connotations of obedience and loyalty "eliminated any desire to protest or rebel on the part of the people." One intellectual condemned filial piety as hypocrisy as he stated, "The father wishes his son to be filial and exacts this by fear and force, and the son becomes a slave and a beast. So filial devotion is the father's personal gain'The son wishes the father's benevolence only for his own benefit'and parents become 'ox and horse to posterity''So parental benevolence is the son's personal gain." In fact, during the May Fourth Movement, the spirit against Confucianism and with it, filial piety, was so strong that the slogan "Overthrow Confucius and Sons" enjoyed great popularity. If the May Fourth Movement provided the ammunition for the collapse of filial piety, the Cultural Revolution definitely pulled the trigger. During the Cultural Revolution, students were taught to be politically and socially active, to revere the Chinese Communist Party and to study the Marxist-Leninist classics, in place of the study of Chinese Classics. Children were taught that they should love Chairman Mao more than they love their own parents and that their country should come before their families. A popular song during the Cultural Revolution enunciated, "'Father and Mother are dear but not as dear as Chairman Mao" Many children were also pressured to criticize and disown their parents. In an account of a girl grew up in the midst of the Cultural Revolution, it was told that she disowned her father completely after being told by her teacher that her fathers was a "Rightist". She wrote her father a letter to denounce him and did not even write a salutation at the top of the letter as she did not feel that an enemy of the people was fit to be her father. Like her, many others blamed their parents for the hardships that they had to endure and had no qualms in reporting on their parents, criticizing and disowning their parents. In a similar account of a girl who left home during the Cultural Revolution, she made a clean break with her family as she was expelled from the Red Guards and suffered all kinds of discrimination after her mother was labelled a "renegade". In fact, children of former landlords, rich peasants, counterrevolutionaries, bad elements, rightists, the bourgeoisie and capitalist roaders could only join the Red Guards after they renounced their class and denounced their parents. Parental control over their children was disintegrated as many families were separated with students given encouragement to travel country-wide with free transport or parents with "black" backgrounds being sent to reform camps. In Niu-Niu's autobiography , after her parents were incarcerated, she was left in the care of her grandmother who loved her well and with whom she had strong attachments. However, she still rebelled, engaging in theft and getting involved in juvenile activities. Her rebellion clearly stemmed from the lack of parental control. The Cultural Revolution can be seen as the period of temporary collapse of filial piety in China. The Confucian value system which has survived thousands of years crumbled under the political and social stress that all families in China faced during the Cultural Revolution. It is ironical that the Confucian virtues of obedience and reverence to authority which is supposedly to be rooted in filial piety was used to turn children against their parents. Another contributing factor to the erosion of filial piety in China is the modernization of China. Since implementation of the "Open-Door Policy" in the 1980's, Chinese youth has been exposed to Western culture, which is often described as "decadent". Although the concept of filial piety was a strong cultural factor in the history of Western civilizations, it gradually declined whereas it remained a central theme in Chinese culture. In the United States, close ties with parents are perceived as inhibitions of autonomy, initiation, industry and personal identity. From a Western perspective, the Confucian concept of filial piety would be seen as a weakness and is "unhealthy" as many Westerners view individuality autonomy as the basis for freedom and societal progress. Therefore, it is inevitable that Chinese youth who are exposed to Western influences through various media such as literature, television, publications and music would unconsciously be shaped to accept Western cultures. More so that Chinese youth perceive Western culture as more "desirable" than Chinese culture as they are perceived to be more modernized, affluent and sophisticated. Therefore, Chinese youth may be seeking to adopt the Western value system, which contrasts with the Confucian value system that articulates filial piety. Implications of the Erosion of Filial Piety The most dramatic implication of the erosion of filial piety in China was the Tiananmen Incident on the fourth of June in 1989. Even though the motive of the student demonstrators was to protest against the government, in many ways, the Tiananmen Incident can be linked to the erosion of filial piety. In the Declaration of Hunger Strike, the students wrote, "'But we know that we are still children, the children of China'We say to our dear mothers and fathers, ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 1855 words of 3710.

Keywords: filial piety in china today, filial piety in chinese, filial piety in chinese culture, filial piety in chinese tradition, filial piety in chinese thought and history, filial piety in chinese buddhism, filial piety in chinese translation, filial piety in chinese tradition example

Similar essays


By: Joey Buttafuco E-mail: The five countries examined are Japan Taiwan Korea Singapore Through his study the author demonstrates that there was no miracle They applied specific strategies that were adapted to their local Some of these strategies worked some didntThe author says that by examining these nations one may...

99 reviews
Analysis of Women in the Military

Women have been compared to the frailty and beauty of ripe apricots in modern poetry; the reference could be construed as sexual. However, in spite of their frailty and beauty, women have served in combat positions in one capacity or another since the beginning of the United States, long before the establishment of the Army Nurse...

196 reviews

What has been done to decrease the problem? One of the largest growing concerns in Toronto is the constantly increasing number of citizens who are finding themselves living on the streets. With the decrease in the number of available jobs, the population of homeless people has literally boomed. My questions are not as simple to answer as they m...

51 reviews
Issue of Preferential Hiring

In recent years preferential hiring has become an issue of great interest. Preferential hiring, which was devised to create harmony between the different races and sexes, has divided the lines even more. Supporters on both sides seem fixed in their positions and often refuse to listen to the other group's platform. In this essay,...

179 reviews
Mdeical benifits of Animal tes

Argument Essay Where would we be Without Animal Testing? Is the use of animals in research justified? Should animal experimentation be permitted? Should these animals be liberated? A logical person would say the benefits justify the research. Without animal testing, products would be based on theory. No one would want t...

56 reviews
Atsisiųsti šį darbą