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English Kings and Queens

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English Kings and Queens

From Harold Godwinson to the present days

House of Wessex

Harold II Godwinson (c.1022-14 October 1066) Reign: January 6th 1066-October 14th 1066 Father: Godwin, Earl of Wessex. Mother: Gytha Thorkelsd'ttir. Died in the Battle of Hastings (October 14th 1066). Harold was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.

House of Normandy

William I (c.1028-9 September 1087) also known as William the Conqueror and William the Bastard because of his illegitimacy.

' Son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Helerva of Falaise, mistress.
' Reign as Duke of Normandy (1035-1087).
' Sailed in England on September 27th and won the battle of Hastings (October 14th, 1066)
' Reign as king of England (Christmas day 1066-1087) (Crowned in the Westminster Abbey).
' Had 9 children with Matilda of Flanders (Robert Curthose, Richard, Duke of Bernay, William II of England, Cecilia of Normandy, Agatha of Normandy, Constance of Normandy, Adeliza, Adela, countess of Blois, and Henry I of England).
' Introduced the Domesday Book in 1085 (published in 1086) which was the record of a great survey that determined who held what and what taxes had been liable under Edward the Confessor. The book was written in Latin and contained two parts; the Little Domesday (Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex) and the Great Domesday (the rest of England).
' Founded the tower of London in 1078.
' On his deathbed, he divided his succession between his sons (Robert became Robert II, Duke of Normandy and William became William II, king of England and Henry received 5, 000 silver pounds to buy land).

William II (c.1056-1100) Alias William Rufus because of his red-faced appearance. Reign: 1087-1100

Third son of William I and Matilda of Flanders. He did not marry nor did he produce any offspring, legitimate or otherwise.William won the rebellion of 1088 which opposed him to his brother, Henry for the division of the lands. In 1091 he repulsed an invasion led by King Malcolm III of Scotland and forced Malcolm to pay homage. 'He was hateful to his people and odious to God' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. His brother, Robert Curthose joined the first crusade in 1096. Rufus died while hunting; he was killed by an arrow through the lung. There are many suppositions about his death. Walter Tyrell was the murderer.

Henry I (1068/69-1135) aka Lion of justice. Reign: 1100-1135

He was married to Matilda (Edit) of Scotland and to Adeliza of Louvain. With Matilda he had 4 children; Euphemia and Richard died young, the future empress Matilda and William Adelin. He succeeded to his brother, William as the king of England. He fought against his eldest brother, Robert Curthose and he defeated him at the battle of Tinchebray (1106). Henry imprisoned his brother in the Tower of London. He then appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England. Henry introduced a new monetary system known as the tally stick; he created laws which demanded that royal taxes be paid with tally sticks instead of coin money. This practice survived for 727 years until 1826.He is famed for his record of more than twenty acknowledged illegitimate children; the largest number for any English king. Henry died of a food empoisoning on December 1st 1135.

Stephen I (c.1096-1154) often referred to as Stephen of Blois. Father: Stephen II, Count of Blois Mother: Adela of Normandy Stephen was one of the contenders for the succession of Henry I alongside with Matilda (the only legitimate surviving child of ...

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