- Discover essay samples

Chlamydia 2

4.9 of 5.0 (114 reviews)

1145 words

Chlamydia 2 Page 1
Chlamydia 2 Page 2
Chlamydia 2 Page 3
Chlamydia 2 Page 4
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.

Chlamydia 2


Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, hence the name; Chlamydia The word chlamys is Greek for "cloak draped around the shoulder.' This describes how the intracytoplasmic inclusions caused by the bacterium are "draped" around the infected cell's nucleus. Scientists discovered the organism in 1907, although it probably has been infecting people for hundreds of years. Because the symptoms of the disease resemble other pathologies, chlamydia was not recognized as a sexually transmitted disease until recently. Isolation from embryonated eggs in 1957 and from cell culture in 1963 confirmed its existence as a bacterium. (Madigan) However, since the organism is an obligate intracellular parasite that exclusively infects humans (it cannot synthesize its own ATP or grow on artificial medium), it was once thought to be a virus.(Hatch) Because of Chlamydia's unique developmental cycle, it was taxonomically classified in a separate order. It can thus be found with the other well-known intracellular parasites, rickettsiae, in diagnostic manuals. Until recently, however, there were no reliable and easy tests for chlamydia. Chlamydia prevention and patient care were impeded by the lack of suitable laboratory tests for screening and diagnosis. Such tests are now available. Through education, screening, partner referral, and proper patient care public health workers and health-care practitioners can combine efforts to decrease the morbidity and costs resulting from this infection.

Chlamydia is the number one bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States today. Four million new cases of chlamydia occur each year. It is many times more common than gonorrhea. Chlamydia infection is primarily transmitted from person to person through contact with the mucous membranes of the vagina, urethra, rectum or mouth. The chief mode of transmission is sexual intercourse-oral, anal or genital. The infection can be present for long periods of time, even years, without any signs of infection. It's particularly common among teens and young adults. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can be caused by chlamydia, is a leading cause of infertility when left untreated. Chlamydia is usually easy to treat. However, most people with chlamydia have no symptoms. Chlamydia is an infection that is spread through sex. It is very common among teens and young adults. If it is not treated, chlamydia can damage a woman's body so she can never have children. Approximately 60 to 80% of women will have no noticeable symptoms of an infection, and when symptoms are present they are usually mild. A pregnant woman may pass the infection to her newborn during delivery, with subsequent neonatal eye infection or pneumonia. Each year up to 1 million women in the United States develop PID, a serious infection of the reproductive organs. PID is the most common cause of pregnancy-related death among poor teenagers in the inner cites and rural areas of the United States. The annuals cost estimates exceed $7 billion. As many as half of all cases of PID may be due to chlamydial infection and many of these occurring without symptoms. PID can result in scarring of the fallopian tubes, which can block the tubes and prevent fertilization from taking place. An estimated 100,000 women each year become infertile as a result of PID. A baby who is exposed to C. trachomatis in the birth canal during delivery may develop conjunctivitis (eye infection) or pneumonia.(Boston) Symptoms of conjunctivitis, which include discharge and swollen eyelids, usually develop within the first 10 days of life. Symptoms of pneumonia, including a progressively worsening cough and congestion, most often develop within three to six weeks of birth. Both conditions can be treated successfully with antibiotics. In other cases, scarring may interfere with the passage of the fertilized egg down into the uterus. When this happens, the egg may implant in the fallopian tube. This is called ectopic or tubal pregnancy. This is life threatening for the mother and results in the loss of the fetus. Because of these risks to the newborn, many doctors recommend routine testing of all pregnant women for chlamydial infection.

Chlamydia infections are not limited to women. In men, the bacteria can cause infections of the urethra, prostate gland, and rectum, as well as epididymitis, a painful inflammation of the tiny structures inside the testicles where sperm are stored. There are roughly four million cases annually, most occurring in men and women under the age of 25. Direct and indirect costs of chlamydia (mainly costs for complications) total $24 billion a year. This is most likely an underestimate, since half of people with chlamydia likely have gonorrhea too. Hence, costs to diagnose and treat the latter sexually transmitted disease must be included.

Chlamydia is known as the "silent epidemic" because three quarters of the women and half of the men with the disease have no symptoms. Possible symptoms include discharge from the penis or vagina and a burning sensation when urinating. In women, symptoms include increased vaginal discharge, burning during urination, irritation of the area around the vagina, bleeding after sexual intercourse, lower abdominal pain, and abnormal vaginal bleeding. Infection in women usually begins at the cervix. Additional symptoms for women include pain during intercourse and bleeding between menstrual periods. Doctors estimate that, in women, one-third of the chlamydial infections result in PID. Often these infections are not diagnosed until PID or other complications develop. In men, rarely, chlamydial infections may lead to pain or swelling in the scrotal area, which is a sign of epididymitis, an inflammation of a part of the male reproductive system located near the testicles. Left untreated, this condition, like PID in women, can cause infertility. C. trachomatis can cause proctitis (inflamed rectum) and conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eye). The bacteria also have been found in the throat as a result of oral sexual contact with an infected partner. In tropical climates, a particular strain of C. trachomatis causes an STD called lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), which is characterized by prominent swelling and inflammation of the lymph nodes in the groin. Complications may follow if LGV is not treated; this infection is very rare in the United States.

In men, non-gonococcal urethritis is the main symptom. This includes clear, white, or yellow discharge from the urethra, burning and pain during urination, and tingling or itching sensations. Another infection caused by C. trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum, is characterized by a swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area. In men, this can lead to proctitis and in women; it can lead to rectal narrowing. The primary stage is detected as small ulcers or vesicles which usually heal without scarring. The secondary stage, called "supperative lymphadenopathy", is characterized by chills, fever, and arthralgais. The large area of swelling in the groin is called a bubo. Finally, the tertiary stage is when rectal narrowing or draining of the sinuses occurs.(Barnes)

Untreated, chlamydia can permanently damage the reproductive organs. ...

You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 1145 words of 2290.

Keywords: chlamydia 2 pills, chlamydia 2022, chlamydia 2 tablets, chlamydia 2 day treatment, chlamydia 2 pill treatment, chlamydia 2 weeks, chlamydia 2nd time, chlamydia 2 months

Similar essays

Effects of Smoking

According to the American Lung Association, there are an estimated 50 million people who smoke. For some reason people just do not fully understand the risks they take by smoking. Cigarette smoking is a frequent cause for many health problems with smokers. To begin with, there are many hazardous ingredients in cigarette tobacco....

87 reviews
Human genome project 2

It all started back in 1953 with two men by the names of James D. Watson and Francis Crick when they discovered the double-helical structure of DNA. Little did they know they were opening the door to the creation of a perfect world. In 1986, the Human Genome Project, led up by the National Institution of Health(NIH), took a giant le...

73 reviews
Antibiotic resistance 2

During 1997, an event doctors had been fearing finally occurred. In three geographically separate patients, an often deadly bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, responded poorly to a once reliable antidote--the antibiotic vancomycin. Fortunately, in those patients, the bacteria remained susceptible to other drugs and was eradicated. But the appear...

200 reviews

: Could They Be All They Are Made Out To Be? 'Over a seventy-year life span, you'll devote at least fifty thousand hours to dreaming' (Segell 42). These dreams can be made up of many things. They can be a window into another world or 'like a urgent fax from your subconscious' (Graves 97). Many things can affect what we dream about and...

66 reviews

- TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Title Page 2. Table of Contents 3. Body Structure 4. Habitat 5. Predetation 6. Reproduction 7. Family Life 8. Environmental Adaptations 9. Picture 10. Bibliography ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATIONS The kangaroo has adapted to many different types of climates. The gray kangaroo has adapted to life in the...

15 reviews
Atsisiųsti šį darbą