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Byzantium civilization

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Byzantium civilization

The Byzantium Civilization started cause of overcrowding in the eight century B.C. that led Greek city-states to send out colonies throughout the Mediterranean basin. In the year of 667 B.C.; Byzas, from the Greek city of Megra, founded Byzantium Civilization at the mouth of the Black Sea. Alexander the Great dominated Byzantium as he built an empire around it stretching from Greece to India. Byzantium was the Christianized eastern part of the Roman Empire. Constantine the Great was a vital figure in the early stages of this civilization. He established toleration for Christianity throughout the Roman Empire and legally transferred his capital from Rome to Constantinople, which is the site of the Greek City of Byzantium. Roman law and political institutions ruled the people there and they spoke Latin and Greek languages. Merchants at this city were able to grow rich cause of its strategic location between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Constantine liked to import Greek-Roman art from throughout the empire.

Byzantium art focused on human figures. The most prominent figures that were created were Christ, the Virgin Mary, the saints, and the apostles. The emperor was believed to be divinely sanctioned by god. Human figures were portrayed in sculptures in two different styles. One style expressed power, authority, and grandeur. The other style expresses adoration, sympathy, prayer, and distress.

The Attarouthi Treasures consist of fifteen objects: ten chalices, three censers, a wine strainer, and a dove. The artifacts were found buried in the vicinity of the ancient town Attarouthi. This town was a stopping point on the trade routes. The chalices were used to hold wine during the Liturgy. Upright frontal figures decorated most of the chalices with Christ appearing as a beardless young man. The dove represents the Holy Christ that descended over Christ when Saint John baptized him. Crosses and bust-length figures of Christ decorate the censers.

The emperor Maurice Tiberius had a medallion that when put together with twelve gold coins and three other medallions that were identical formed a griddle. Griddles of this type were worn as belts or slashes and sometimes even necklaces. Traditionally the Roman emperor would give medallions and coins as gifts to high-ranking officials or nobles.

The Processional Cross is decorated on both sides with silver-gilt medallions. On the front of the cross, Christ has his right hand raised in blessing and is flanked by Mary on the left side with John the Baptist on the right. The clergy in imperial ceremonies, military campaigns, and liturgical processions carried these crosses. They were also given to the church as gifts for healing and remission of sins. The origin of these crosses is unknown.

The enkolpion is a devotional pendant or medallion that was meant to be worn around the neck. On one side of the pendant bears a picture of Christ and other the other side is the Virgin. Christ holds a book in his left hand and raises his right in blessing. The inscription, on the Christ side reads, ? Jesus Christ King of Glory.? The virgin, on the other side of the medallion, extends her arms in prayer and the inscription reads, ?Mother of God.?",History
The Causes and Effects of World War I,The Causes and Effects of World War I

What were the causes and effects of World War I? The answer

to this seemingly simple question is not elementary. There was more to

the onset of the war then the event of an Austrian prince being

murdered in Serbia, as is what most people consider to be the cause of

World War I. Furthermore, the effects of the war were not just

concentrated to a post-war era lasting for a generation of Westerners.

No, the effects of the war were widespread throughout the world and

can be traced to generations after the war.

It is not a rare occasion that when a person is asked what the

causes of World War I were, that they answer with the simple comment

of an Austrian Prince being shot in Serbia. However the assignation of

the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie , in Sarajevo was

not the main cause of the Great War. Rather, it was the breaking

point for Austria in its dealings with Serbia. The truth of the matter

is that several factors played a role in the outbreak of the

catastrophic war the engulfed the nations of Europe for over four

years. World War I truly was the result of building aggressions among

the countries of Europe which was backed by the rise of nationalism.

To add to the disastrous pot, there was also imperial competition

along with the fear of war prompting military alliances and an arms

race. All of these increased the escalating tensions that lead to the

outbreak of a world war. (Mckay, pg. 904)

Two opposing alliances developed by the Bismarckian diplomacy

after the Franco- Prussian War was one of the major causes of the war.

In order to diplomatically isolate France, Bismarck formed the Three

Emperor's League in 1872, which was an alliance between Germany,

Russia, and Austria-Hungary. Then in 1882 , Bismarck took advantage of

Italian resentment toward France and formed the Triple Alliance

between Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungry. In 1890 Bismarck was

dismissed from his office and France took the opportunity to gain an

ally, therefore , in 1891 the Franco- Russian Entente was formed. Then

in 1904 Britain and France put aside their conflicts and formed the

Entente Cordiale. As a result , the Triple Entente , a coalition

between Great Britain, France , and Russia, countered the Triple

Alliance. Now Europe was divided up into two armed camps.(World Book

Encyclopedia, WXYZ, pg. 367)

Nationalism also played a major role in developing tensions in

Europe; for it had been causing dissatisfaction since the Congress of

Vienna in 1815. In that settlement the preservment of peace was chosen

over nationalism, therefore, Germany and Italy were left as divided

states, though they did unify in the future. The Franco- Prussian War

in 1871 resulted in the France's loss of the province of Alasce-

Lorraine to Germany, and the French looked forward to regaining their

lands. Then there was Austria- Hungary which controlled many lands

that their neighbors felt belonged to them. Serbia wanted Bosnia and

Hercegovina, Italy wanted the Trentino and Trieste regions, and the

Czechs and Solvaks wanted independence from Austria- Hungrey. There

was also Russia which had problems within it's own boundaries; for

Russia contained many different nationalities and many were also

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