- Discover essay samples


4.9 of 5.0 (116 reviews)

669 words

Bioethics Page 1
Bioethics Page 2
Bioethics Page 3
The above thumbnails are of reduced quality. To view the work in full quality, click download.



Progress in the pharmacological, medical and biological sciences involves experimentation on all living species, including animals and humans. The effectiveness of medications investigative procedures and treatments must at some point be tested on animals and human beings. Although tests are conducted much more frequently on lab animals, especially those most related to humans, they do not provide sufficient information.

The history of medicine shows that there has always been a need for experimentation on human beings. Examples of these consist of the inoculation of Newgate prisoners in 1721, who had been condemned to death with Smallpox. In 1796, Edward Jenner, also studying Smallpox, inoculated an eight year old boy with pus from a diseased cow. The list goes on, and such experiments continue even until today.

Nowadays these experiments would be ethically and legally unacceptable. Nevertheless, there have been clear documented cases of abuse in recent times. An example of this is the experiments conducted by Nazi doctors on prisoners in the concentration camps during the Holocaust. Does this mean that since there is potential for abuse, all experimentation should be banned? This would mean that society would be condemned to remain at the same level of knowledge (status quo)? Bioethically speaking, how far can we go in the study of the human without crossing the line? The fundamental question is, since we are the ones drawing the line, where do we draw it?

The purpose of this essay is to provide a clear sense of the present law on this issue. To review the problems raised by experimentation on animals.


Biomedical experimentation on human subjects raises many complex legal problems that the law must deal with accordingly. For example, infringement on the rules subjects the researcher not only to criminal sanctions, but also civil sanctions (damages for harm caused), administrative sanctions (withdrawal of funds), or disciplinary sanctions (suspension from the researchers' professional association).


Criminal sanctions dealing with offences against the person make it possible to penalize those causing harm to a subject who has not given valid consent to an experiment. Explaining this, many experiments on humans are legal and performed everyday. No experiment is performed without a purpose. The most common is during surgery, the patients give valid consent to have experiments conducted on them during the operation.

With respect to medications, citizens of The United States are given protection by the Food and Drug Act. These laws control new medications into the market. Although this seems as though it contains no ethical procedures it touches upon the experimentation prior to the release of the medication. Many animals have been used in order to bring these medications to the market.

Furthermore, humans must have been used during experimentation. According to the Law, any experimentperformed on a person to bring out any new medication may result in criminal sanction (homicide, damages for harm, suspension). Here are a few examples given by the of National Orders of Technology. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the diseased of other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment. The voluntary consent of the human is absolutely essential.


In 1977, a report of the American Council was prepared on ethics. It was responsible for construing ethical guidelines for the people to abide by. Although the report deals with ethics in the bio-medical studies, it emphasizes more on other issues.


You are currently seeing 50% of this paper.

You're seeing 669 words of 1337.

Keywords: bioethics principles, bioethics examples, bioethics topics, bioethics jobs, bioethics ppt, bioethics in nursing, bioethics is concerned with, bioethics pdf

Similar essays

Exploring the mind

I am interested in what drives the human mind to make decisions, good or bad. Of all the problems in society everyone of them come back to what actions we decide to make in our life as individuals and as a society. To understand what motivates the decision making process is the first essential step to understanding if not resolving many probl...

190 reviews

is the medical term used to describe the involuntary discharge of urine beyond the age when a child is old enough to be able to control urination (usually considered to be six years of age for nighttime control), or more commonly, bedwetting. There are several types of enuresis: diurnal enuresis is wetting that occurs during...

57 reviews

CDR Recordable Compact Disk (CD-R) is a blank CD with the ability to be recorded onto. The unit that is used to write data to these blank CD's is called a CD Writer or 'Burner.' This unit is not unlike a normal CD drive, the difference being that it has two lasers one invisible, one visible. The invisible, is used for writing data onto the...

122 reviews
Early health and medicine

Early Health and Medicine Today our personal health is often something we take for granted, because over the years we have developed more advanced vitimens, medicines, and cures for numerous sicknesses. In the early days, getting sick was much more terrifying than it is today. The cures for diseases were not much healthier than the dis...

117 reviews
A look at anemia related to nutritional issues

A LOOK AT ANEMIA RELATED TO NUTRITIONAL ISSUES TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE......................................................................... METHODOLOGY..............................................................

87 reviews
Aquatic Biome

Water is the common link among the five biomes and it makes up the largest part of the biosphere, covering nearly 75% of the Earth?s surface. Aquatic regions house numerous species of plants and animals, both large and small. Without water, most life forms would be unable to sustain themselves and the Earth would be a barren, deser...

39 reviews

is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It strikes about 4 million people a year in the U.S.. 100,000 women become infertile each year from a pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which plugs up or scars the filopian tubes, so the egg can't reach the uterus. 45% of sexually active teenagers are exposed to th...

39 reviews
Heart murmurr

Heart Murmur, Atherosclerosis, & Heart Failure A heart murmur is a sound caused by blood flowing through a child's heart or through blood vessels entering or leaving the heart. More that 50 percent of all people will be diagnosed with a heart murmur sometime in their lives. When a child's doctor or nurse practitioner detects a heart murmur...

5 reviews
The Critical Role of informati

The Critical Role of Information Systems Today's information systems are both technical and social in nature. Management must understand the importance of information within the organization. It is management's job to understand how information is collected, processed, and distributed. We are all extremely affected by information systems...

77 reviews
Bipolar disorder 3

Manic-depressive illness, or bipolar disorder, is a psychiatric disorder and brain disease is characterized by severe mood swings, from mania to depression. Bipolar Disorder is a biological disease of the brain. It is caused by a chemical imbalance. It affects more than 2 million Americans and may have a strong genetic link Men and women are e...

140 reviews
The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect occurs when gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and CFCs trap heat in the atmosphere by acting as a pane of glass in a car. _The glass_ lets the sun light in to make heat but when the heat tries to get out the gases absorb the heat. Holding this heat in causes heat waves, droughts and...

115 reviews
Man vs

. the environment The environment can be something as vast as global weather patterns or as simple as the desert regions. With the advent of many technologies, the delicate balance of the environment has been upset (Elliot, 1961, p. 392). Strip mining, slash and burn farming, damming of rivers, and the extinction of many species of plants and...

31 reviews
Ebola 2

In 1976, Ebola virus made it?s first appearance in Zaire, Africa, causing the death of hundreds of people. The second outbreak occurred western Sudan, also in 1976. These were large outbreaks, resulting in more than 550 cases and 340 deaths. In 1979, Ebola mysteriously re-appeared in Sudan causing 34 cases and 22 fatalities. The most recent Eb...

71 reviews
Cardiovascular disease

Risks factors for cardiovascular disease that can and can not be changed. The risks factor for cardiovascular disease have been categorize by the American Heart Association (AHA) as the following: (1) Major risks factors that can not be changed (increasing age, male gender, and heredity). (2) Major risk factors that can be changed (c...

77 reviews
Atsisiųsti šį darbą